Note the following The removal of a negative stimulus is positively reinforcing – the animal will tend to do that behavior that removes itself from the cues associated with the aversive state of affairs.
The Skinner Box Any box or device in which a reinforcer can be automatically delivered contingent on the behavior of the animal.
Shaping The initial learning – teaching the animal to hit a bar or push a key.
Accumulative record A “strip chart’s” ink record of the animals behavior.
Schedules of reinforcement Reinforcement based on responses Reinforcement based on the passage of time
Fixed Ratio Behavior (FR) Reinforcement based on the number of response accomplished. For humans, piece work – payment for the number of things accomplished
Variable Ratio (VR) Payment (reinforcement) for the average number of responses accomplished
Description: Decreasing the frequency of a behavior by either presenting an unpleasant stimulus (punishment 1) or removing a pleasant one (punishment 2 (penalty).
Example You swat the dog after it steals food from the table, or you take a favorite toy away from a child who misbehaves. A number of cautions should be kept in mind when using punishment (see below for an example).
Learned helplessness Continued punishment until the animal refuses to respond even when there is no aversive state of affairs.