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Tutoring Students With ADHD By Kenneth Stefano, PsyD

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Presentation on theme: "Tutoring Students With ADHD By Kenneth Stefano, PsyD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tutoring Students With ADHD By Kenneth Stefano, PsyD

2 What is ADHD?  Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ATTENTION ATTENTION Focus, concentration, screening out/ignoring distractionsFocus, concentration, screening out/ignoring distractions DEFICIT DEFICIT Inaccurate name – more a problem with regulating attentionInaccurate name – more a problem with regulating attention HYPERACTIVITY HYPERACTIVITY Restless, fidgety, impulsive, poorly controlledRestless, fidgety, impulsive, poorly controlled DISORDER DISORDER Causes problems in school, home, and/or communityCauses problems in school, home, and/or community

3 What is ADHD?  ADHD is NOT the result of: Laziness Laziness Poor nutrition Poor nutrition Bad parenting Bad parenting Lack of self-discipline Lack of self-discipline  ADHD is the result of: Heredity (your genes) and biology (how your brain develops) Heredity (your genes) and biology (how your brain develops)

4 What Causes ADHD?  Top 3 genetically predisposed disorders percent of cases percent of cases  Many genes under investigation  Probably a combination of genes needed to develop ADHD  Cause areas of brain to develop differently Motor areas develop faster Motor areas develop faster Control areas develop slower Control areas develop slower

5 Biology  Some ADHD is biological About percent, due to : About percent, due to :  Premature birth  Exposure to toxin Alcohol, cigarettes, lead, infection Alcohol, cigarettes, lead, infection  Brain injury  Side effect of cancer chemotherapy

6 3 Types of ADHD 3 Types of ADHD  Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Fidgets and squirms Fidgets and squirms Can’t stay seated Can’t stay seated Runs, climbs, or acts restless Runs, climbs, or acts restless Talks excessively Talks excessively Blurts out answers Blurts out answers Can’t wait turn Can’t wait turn Interrupts or intrudes on others Interrupts or intrudes on others

7 3 Types of ADHD  Inattentive Type Makes careless mistakes/misses details Makes careless mistakes/misses details Difficulty sustaining attention or listening Difficulty sustaining attention or listening Does not follow through with or finish tasks Does not follow through with or finish tasks Difficulty organizing tasks/activities Difficulty organizing tasks/activities Avoids homework, chores, other boring tasks Avoids homework, chores, other boring tasks Loses things easily Loses things easily Easily distracted by sights, sounds, etc. Easily distracted by sights, sounds, etc. Forgetful Forgetful

8 3 Types of ADHD  Combined Type A combination of inattentive and hyperactive- impulsive symptoms A combination of inattentive and hyperactive- impulsive symptoms Most common type Most common type

9 What Does ADHD Look Like?  Tapping desk, shaking feet, swinging legs  Can’t stay seated Goes to bathroom, gets a drink, etc. Goes to bathroom, gets a drink, etc.  Rushes through work Makes careless errors Makes careless errors  Can’t stop talking Interrupts Interrupts Starts conversations Starts conversations

10 What Does ADHD Look Like?  Works slowly  Acts bored, wants to stop early  Responds to sounds, sights, etc.  Asks off-topic questions  Is not prepared Doesn’t have materials Doesn’t have materials Doesn’t know assignment Doesn’t know assignment  Gets easily frustrated

11 What Does ADHD Look Like  Inconsistent performance Some days student works well, other days student can’t focus at all Some days student works well, other days student can’t focus at all  Forgets previously learned procedures

12 Strategies  Check in with parent Did student take medication today? Did student take medication today? How was student’s day at school? How was student’s day at school? Has student had a snack, play break, etc. before session? Has student had a snack, play break, etc. before session? What strategies do parents use to help student focus/behave? What strategies do parents use to help student focus/behave?

13 Strategies  Be prepared Have extra supplies handy (e.g., pencils, erasers, calculator, etc). Have extra supplies handy (e.g., pencils, erasers, calculator, etc). Bring along a “fidget toy” (e.g., stress ball or Koosh ball) so student can channel excess energy. Bring along a “fidget toy” (e.g., stress ball or Koosh ball) so student can channel excess energy. Have clear expectations for behavior Have clear expectations for behavior Provide a list of “rules”Provide a list of “rules” Make rule list visibleMake rule list visible

14 Strategies  Communication skills Speak softly and slowly Speak softly and slowly Get eye-contact before speaking Get eye-contact before speaking Move closer to student when giving instructions Move closer to student when giving instructions Have student repeat instructions Have student repeat instructions

15 Strategies  Communication skills, cont. Provide frequent praise Provide frequent praise Be clear and firm when student gets off task Be clear and firm when student gets off task Tell student what you want them to DO, not what you want them to NOT DO Tell student what you want them to DO, not what you want them to NOT DO E.g., say “please sit still” instead of “stop fidgeting”E.g., say “please sit still” instead of “stop fidgeting”

16 Strategies  Be organized Have a schedule of the session’s activities. Have a schedule of the session’s activities. Make the schedule visible (allow student to cross off activities as session progresses) Make the schedule visible (allow student to cross off activities as session progresses) Change activities often – at least every 15 minutes Change activities often – at least every 15 minutes Provide “reward” at end of session if student is compliant (e.g., listen to a song, play a quick game of Uno, etc.) Provide “reward” at end of session if student is compliant (e.g., listen to a song, play a quick game of Uno, etc.)

17 Strategies  Manage the environment Minimize distractions Minimize distractions No TV's/radios onNo TV's/radios on Have session in low traffic areaHave session in low traffic area Keep work area clear Keep work area clear Only have out what you are working onOnly have out what you are working on Present only a few problems at a time Present only a few problems at a time Rewrite problems from a work sheet onto several sheetsRewrite problems from a work sheet onto several sheets Allow student to stand while working or walk around in between problems Allow student to stand while working or walk around in between problems

18 Strategies  Build in breaks Allow for brief movement between activities Allow for brief movement between activities Jumping jacksJumping jacks Healthy snackHealthy snack  For younger students (5 th -6 th grade) Consider using a sticker or token chart Consider using a sticker or token chart Use a clock/timer to help student stay on task Use a clock/timer to help student stay on task

19 Take Away 1. ADHD kids are not lazy 2. Be Prepared 3. Be creative and flexible


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