Presentation on theme: "“The Reformation of the sixteenth century is, next to the introduction of Christianity, the greatest event in history. It marks the end of the Middle Ages."— Presentation transcript:
“The Reformation of the sixteenth century is, next to the introduction of Christianity, the greatest event in history. It marks the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times. Starting from religion, it gave, directly or indirectly, a mighty impulse to every forward movement, and made Protestantism the chief propelling force in the history of modern civilization” (Philip Schaff,History of the Christian Church). Session 1 – Setting the Stage
The reformation technically starts with Martin Luther, but many things had to be in place (like with the early church) for it to be as successful as it was Understand, six weeks is still not enough time to due justice to everything that happened in the reformation We will do our best to cover the most important aspects of what gave rise to modern Christianity
While we will look at events and individuals who lived outside this time period, the history of the Reformation, as a distinct, well- defined, aggressive force, took place between the dates 1517 and 1648. In this short time period the Reformation invaded every nation in Europe. What were the reformers trying to reform? What theology and teachings were they against?
Overview of the Roman Catholic Church The reformers (and modern day Christians) do not disagree with the Roman Catholic Church on all doctrines: - The Trinity - The deity of Jesus Christ - The Virgin Birth - The Sinless life of Christ - The atonement on the cross
But there are also some big differences - The idea of the Pope - The doctrine of Purgatory - Prayers to Mary and dead saints - Images to kneel and pray before. -Confession to a priest for absolution of sins. -The Mass and sacraments as necessary for salvation.
- Penance and selling of indulgences. - Veneration and worship of Mary - Celibacy of the priesthood - The Eucharist of the Mass and transubstantiation These were the issues that caused the reformers to leave the Roman Catholic Church and preach against it Pre-Reformation Reformers
John Wycliffe "Morning Star of the Reformation," In the year 1324, Wycliffe was born in Yorkshire, England. Nothing is known of his childhood or early youth. In the year 1340, at the age of sixteen years, he was admitted as a student at Queen's College, Oxford
He carefully read the writings of the fathers, and although the Sacred Scriptures were then almost entirely neglected by the ecclesiastic, Wycliffe devoted much time to their study. Through different situations John Wycliffe had become very respected at his university & was given a position there of great influence
In 1374 Wycliffe was sent to the Continent upon an embassy to the Pope. He remained abroad two years, carefully studying the policy of the Pope, and returned to England more convinced of the corruption of the Romish Church. Wycliffe's doctrines gave so much offence to the clergy of the Romish Church, that in 1377 he was summoned to appear before a convocation which met in St. Paul's Cathedral in London
The meeting broke up in confusion before taking measures against Wycliffe. Later that year, the Pope gave the order to have him arrested and kept in security until further orders The University was very upset about this and debated if they’d even listen to what the Pope said. But Wycliffe decided it would be best to meet his accusers face to face (which they did in January of 1373)
We are not sure if they would have been able to silence Wycliffe, because before anything could happen the queen mother forbade their proceeding again him and he was dismissed and told to stop preaching Around this time he was involved in translating the Bible and teaching on the absolute authority of the scriptures (Sola Scriptura)
Unfortunately, his enemies took advantage of some disturbance which they unjustly charged to his teaching He was banished from the University in 1353, retiring to his living at Lutterworth where he died in 1384. The translation of the Bible was the chief and crowning glory of his life, and the lever by which the Papal power in Great Britain was overthrown.
John Huss (1369-1415) John Huss was a precursor to Martin Luther and the start of the reformation John Huss was born to peasant parents in Husinec, which is the south of today's Czech Republic. To escape poverty, Huss trained for the priesthood: "I had thought to become a priest quickly in order to secure a good livelihood and dress and to be held in esteem by men."
John Huss earned his bachelor's, master's, and doctorate. He was also ordained in 1401 and became the preacher at Prague's Bethlehem Chapel (which held 3,000), which was one of the most popular churches in Europe The Writings of John Wycliffe has stirred John Huss’ interest in what the Bible says (not just what the church says)
the Czechs, with Huss, also warmed up to Wycliffe's reforming ideas; though they had no intention of abandoning traditional doctrines, they placed more emphasis on the Bible, want to expand council power (lessen the Popes) and wanted to see moral reform in the clergy Huss began increasingly to trust the Scriptures, "desiring to hold, believe, and assert whatever is contained in them as long as I have breath in me."
There was a lot of political struggle going on at the time, with multiple people claiming to be Pope. After the Pope was decided, he was bribed to side against Huss and he was forbidden to preach and excommunicated (on paper only). Despite that, with local Bohemians backing him, Huss continued to preach and minister at Bethlehem Chapel.
The next Pope started selling indulgences to raise money for his crusade, which made Huss more radical and outspoken. He heavily emphasized scripture as the authority of the church, not the Pope. Unfortunately, the Bohemian king (who got a cute of this indulgence money) sided against John Huss and revived/enforced his prior excommunication
There was a ban put on Prague that no one could receive communion or bury their dead on church ground unless John Huss left, so he did. He withdrew to the countryside and continued to write and send letters back to Prague that would be read publicly In 1414, the Council of Constance assembled, and Huss was urged to come and give an account of his doctrine.
Because he was promised safe conduct, and because of the importance of the council (which promised significant church reforms), Huss went. When he arrived, however, he was immediately arrested, and he remained imprisoned for months. Instead of a hearing, Huss was eventually hauled before authorities in chains and asked merely to recant his views.
At his hearing he said: "I appeal to Jesus Christ, the only judge who is almighty and completely just. In his hands I plead my cause, not on the basis of false witnesses and erring councils, but on truth and justice." He was given one last chance to recant at the stake, where he prayed, "Lord Jesus, it is for thee that I patiently endure this cruel death. I pray thee to have mercy on my enemies." He is said to have died while reciting pslams.
Martin Luther, rummaging through the stacks of a library, happened upon a volume of sermons by John Huss, the Bohemian who had been condemned as a heretic. "I was overwhelmed with astonishment," Luther later wrote. "I could not understand for what cause they had burnt so great a man, who explained the Scriptures with so much gravity and skill." Huss would have a lasting impact on the reformation
William Tyndale (1494-1536) Today, most of us have multiple Bibles in our house available for us to use William Tyndale was primarily responsible for the English translation of the Bible At this time, it was unheard of for people to have a Bible in their own native language (that they could read and understand themselves)
Tyndale enrolled at Oxford at a young age in 1505, and grew up at the University. He received his Master’s Degree in 1515 at the age of twenty-one He proved to be a gifted linguist. One of Tyndale’s associates commented that Tyndale was “so skilled in eight languages – Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, English, and German, that whichever he speaks, you might think it his native tongue!”
At one point Tyndale told a priest, "If God spare my life, ere many years pass, I will cause a boy that driveth the plough shall know more of the Scriptures than thou dost." In translating the scriptures into English, Tyndale was presented with some obstacles It was illegal for him to translate the Bible into English!
He went to London to ask Bishop Tunstall if he could be authorized to make an English translation of the Bible, but the bishop would not grant his approval. This didn’t stop him though, he left the country and travelled to Germany where he started translating the scriptures and then planned to smuggle them back into England But he also met opposition their
News of Tyndale's activity in Germany came to an opponent of the Reformation who had the press he was using raided. Tyndale managed to escape with the pages already printed and made his way to the German city Worms where the New Testament was soon published Six thousand copies were printed and smuggled into England
The Bishops did all they could to stop the spread of these Bibles, they would gather and burn them whenever they could The archbishop of Canterbury bought up copies to destroy them. Tyndale used the money to print improved editions! King Henry VIII offered Tyndale a safe passage to England to serve as his writer and scholar.
Tyndale refused to return until the printing of the Bible was legalized, and he continued to hide and translate the Old Testament while the King’s agents searched for him Tyndale was found by an Englishman who pretended to be his friend but betrayed him. He spent a year and a half in prison and was put on trial for his beliefs. In August 1536, he was condemned
And on October 6, 1536 he was strangled and his body burned at the stake. His last prayer was "Lord, open the King of England's eyes." The prayer was answered in part three years later, in 1539, when Henry VIII required every parish church in England to make a copy of the English Bible available to its parishioners. Tyndale played a vital role in the reformation of the church
Many have wrongly suggested that the reformation was about political power While that aspect did exist, it was not the reason for the reformation The Roman Catholic Church did control the political, economic, and religious aspects of the empire, so there were definitely aspects political and economic, but that was not the purpose of it
“For the Reformation was neither a revolution nor a restoration, though including elements of both. It was negative and destructive towards error, positive and constructive towards truth; it was conservative as well as progressive; it built up new institutions in the place of those which it pulled down; and for this reason and to this extent it has succeeded” (Schaff).
There were many reasons that set the stage for the reformation to be successful Bibles being translated to native tongues The Printing Press Corruption in the papacy The selling of indulgences Worship of Saints and Relics People knew there was a problem
While there was a lot of good that came out of the reformation, there was also some bad theology that many of them held to We will spend a week looking at the negative problematic doctrines that came out of the reformation primarily concerning the Jews (antiemetic views) We need not defend everything reforms say, but test what they say by scripture
“The Reformer is always right about what's wrong. However, he's often wrong about what is right.” - G.K. Chesterton “All that is deformed ought to be reformed. The Word of God alone teaches us what ought to be so, and all reform effected otherwise is vain.” - Francis Lambert The Word of God ought to be our 4ultimate authority in all things
Romans 1:17: ” For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “The just shall live by faith.” Memory Verse