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VAASTUSHASTRA: Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period SUDARSHAN RAJ TIWARI International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 1.

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Presentation on theme: "VAASTUSHASTRA: Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period SUDARSHAN RAJ TIWARI International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 VAASTUSHASTRA: Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period SUDARSHAN RAJ TIWARI International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 1

2 VAASTUSHASTRA RESEARCH: OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Introduction Research Methods Sources Dates Contents [ Symbolism, Trees and Gardens, Site Types, Measurement Scale, Location of Building Blocks and Results, Suitability of Timber, Rule of Architecture, Site Investigations, Patterns for Design ] Architectural Vocabulary International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 2

3 INTRODUCTION International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 3 om/siddam sriganesayanamah Newar architecture, Street-side and courtyard Houses: Distinctive Architectural, Artistic and Crafts Characteristics, Harmony and Agreement of Design and Detail with Neighboring Houses on Streets Practice of Regulated Design and Planning Vaastushastra (Sc. of architecture) Brihatsamhita (composed ca. 2 nd cent BC, written ca. 7 th cent AD) Reading, Transliteration, Translation and Analysis of innovations in residential architecture from three Newar documents All knowledge of what is to be done in this world stems from the word Bhartrihari ca. 7 th Century Folio 1 (Verso)

4 INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA: RESEARCH METHODS STEPS AND METHODS 1.COPYING AND PRINTING OF DOCUMENTS 2.READING AND TRANSLITERATION OF DOCUMENT A443/41 1.Sukra Sagar Shrestha 3.READING AND TRANSLATION OF DOCUMENT 1.Kasi Nath Tamot 4.ANALYSIS OF CONTENT, COMPARING BETWEEN NEWAR DOCUMENTS, COMPARISION WITH ANCIENT DOCUMENTS AND CONTEMPORARY COMMENTARIES FROM INDIA AND NEPAL, CHANGES AND INNOVATIONS 5.REPORT WRITING International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 4 METHODOLOGY INTERPRETIVISM STRATEGIC APPROACH DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ANALYTICAL APPROACH COMPARATIVE

5 INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA: SOURCES Griha Nirmana Vidhi: T hyasaphu (Leporello) with 101/81 (20+61) folios Document Segment paginated 1-61 is the Griha Nirmana Vidhi proper. Folio 1 and 2 lists divinities associated with different parts of a building (symbolism) Folio 3 through 9 is documentation of a construction of temple named Sri Sri Sri Dhanadesvara Folio 10 appears as a misplaced section of Griha Nirman Vidhi. Folio Section 1 dealing Trees and Gardens Folio Section 2 dealing with Vaastusastra Folio Section 3 shows Building Patterns with consequences Folio is a record of some celebrations of the royal palace Document Segment paginated 1-20 is a list of men and materials mobilized for the Dasain International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 5 THYASAPHU in Nat. Archives 1. NGMPP Reel no. A 443/41 GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI 2. NGMPP Reel no. B 407/5 GRIHA NIRMANA VASTULEKHA SAMGRAHA [3. A recently copied Document in Author’s Collection]

6 INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA: DATES FROM SOURCE DOCUMENT Sambat 812 Vaisakh Vadi 1 – Sri Bhupatindra Malla Sambat 764 Vaisakh Sudi 13 – Sri Sri Sri Dhanadesvara (Several dates as related to different stages of construction of the temple is also given) Sambat 811 Aswin Sudi 9 – Mahaniya labiya lyakha [Possibly managed by Sri Bhupatindra Malla as Dhirendra after his sixteenth birthday] International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 6 From GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI FOLIO 26 (RECTO)

7 INNOVATIONS IN VAASTUSHASTRA: CONTENTS STUDY & ANALYSIS Sources distinguished by starting Salutations Section defined by starting symbols Om and Siddham Chapters defined by titles eg Visesha Lhaya TREES & GARDENS SITE TYPES MEASUREMENT SCALE BUILDING LAYOUT AND CONSEQUENCESSUITABILITY OF TIMBERRULES OF ARCHITECTURE SITE INVESTIGATIONSPATTERNS FOR DESIGNARCH VOCABULARY International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 7 CONTENTS GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI FOLIO 13 (Verso)

8 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE: SYMBOLISM, PROPORTIONS & ORIENTATION SYMBOLISM: POST VEDIC - SAIVA, VAISNAV & SHAKTA mix Ground Floor: Dharanivaraha Foundation Trench: Kurmasimha Threshold: BhairavaFloor Joists: Kalika Floor of Treasure room: Mahalaxmi Base block of Ridge Posts: Brahma and VishnuRidge Beam: Sadasiva Rafter: Moon and SunRoof Planks: Group of Stars Eaves:NagaStraw/thatch/Tile: Guru Ridge: BrahmajnanaTop center of Attic: Paramalaxmi PROPORTIONS AND ORIENTATION: Very Little Emphasis as compared to ancient traditions. International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 8 SYMBOLISM Folio 1 (Verso), Folio 2 (Recto and Verso) PROPORTIONS Folio 2 (Verso), Folio 3 (Recto) NGMPP Reel no. A 443/41: GRIHA NIRMANA VIDHI FOLIO 2 (VERSO)

9 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE TREES AND GARDENS Merit of making 10 wells = that of 1 spring, 10 springs = 1 pond, 10 ponds = raising 1 son, MERIT of Planting 1 Tree is equal to merit of raising 10 sons Laha-si, Kachanala-si, Slesmantakaku-si, Arjjun, Karanjanraja-si should not be planted in houses of happy households Garden should be laid to West, North and East of houses. Gardens in South, South-East and South-West result in quarrels, wandering of mind and sorrow Vanaspati, Druma, Lata and Gulma are. padapajati, who eat through their feet - born from branches, seeds and bulbs. Method of treating trees burnt by fire /hit by thunderbolt International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 9 TREES & GARDENS Folio 11 (Recto) – Folio 13 (Recto) Propagation, Caring & Manuring of Fruit and Flower trees Folio 13 (Verso) – Folio 18 (Recto) FOLIO 11 (RECTO)

10 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE VASTULAXYANA, SCALE & LAYOUT OF BLOCKS 1 Vastulaxyana (site types) same as in classical documents – sixteen types. Chakra shape brings poverty! 7 goraja make 1 yuka, 7 yuka make 1 yaba, 8 yaba make Jesthanguli, 7 yaba make Madhyamanguli - This is said to be the Standard of Measure (Scale)! Manasara/Mayamata Scale 8 liksya make 1 yuka, 8 yuka make 1 yaba, 8 yaba make Jesthanguli 1 Malla JA is 362 goraja, while 1 Manasara JA is 512 goraja (512/362 = = √2) Diagonal of a square with side equal to 1 Malla JA equals to 1 Manasara JA Manadeva measure and scale – prescribed for measurement of temples, bahals and land – details but not understood clearly by this research International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 10 Vastulaxyana Folio 18 (Recto) – Folio 19 (Recto) Scale Folio 19 (Recto), 21 Verso, 22 Recto, 23 Recto and 23 Verso Layout of Blocks Folio 19 (Verso) FOLIO 19 (Recto)

11 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE VASTULAXYANA, SCALE & LAYOUT OF BLOCKS 2 Layout of Blocks/Position of Entrance Opening and Consequences on religious merit, health, wealth and life of residents 1 No block in the North-west corner, residents of such houses beget riches and property 2. With North-west corner blocks, illness and diseases will befall on the residents 3. No West block will make one studious and will amass riches and property 4. East entrance > artistic qualities; North entrance > riches; West passage > loss of wealth and South entrance > fear of death – YAMADVARA! INNOVATIONS MADE WITH PATTERNS AND USE OF RECTANGULAR/SQUARE SITES. URBAN CONTEXT REMARKABLY ADDRESSED BY INNOVATIONS International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 11 Vastulaxyana Folio 18 (Recto) – Folio 19 (Recto) Scale Folio 19 (Recto) Layout of Blocks Folio 19 (Verso) FOLIO 19 (VERSO)

12 Brihatsamhita Stanzas RULE OF SIXTEEN HOUSES *PARTIAL EXPLANATIONS 12

13 KRAMRISCH (Brihatsamhita, LII. 43f.) PADADEVATAS OF THE VASTUPURUSAMANDALA *PARTIAL EXPLANATIONS 13

14 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE SUITABILITY OF BUILDING TIMBER SOME PRESCRIPTIONS 1.Proper wood selection must be based on systematic consideration- the wood from Dhuna-si and Nyakhadi-si can be used for any element. Also Sinhyadi-si, Gvachhe, Kudunikanta. 2.Devadaru-si, Cha-si, these two, can be exposed to water or to damp 3.Sva-si for column shoe block 4.For shaft of chariots use wood from Na-si and Pase-si. No young tree or Sura-si shall be used 5.Good wood should be used for Ridge as in Siva deval, Vishnu deval, Mandap, for all these four. International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 14 SELECTING Suitable Wood from different species of trees for different woodworks Folio 20 (Recto) – 21 (Recto) FOLIO 20 (VERSO)

15 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE RULES OF ARCHITECTURE PROPORTIONING AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AUSPICIOUS WORKS AND MEASUREMENT OF LAND – MANDEVALAXYANA Ordinarily 1 KU is equal to 24 angula (JA or MA or KA) 1 KU plus 3½ angula makes “NASOANGULA” BO 1 KU plus 5 angula makes “NGAANGULA” BO (+7 angula or + 9 angula also) MEASUREMENT SYSTEM using 92 Manadeva angula and 2 yaba, 77 Manadeva angula and 2 yaba, 44 Manadeva angula and 2 yaba - NOT FOR RESIDENCES? ARCHITECTURAL PROPORTIONING OF TEMPLES – DOOR, GOD IMAGE, GAJUR ARCHITECTURAL PROPORTIONING OF RESIDENCES – DOOR, DETAILS OF PROPORTIONING DOOR PROPORTION OF PLINTH, CHOWK and BUILDING BODY International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 15 MANADEVALAXYANA Folio 21 (Verso) – 23 (Verso) FOLIO 22 (Recto)

16 CONTENT ANALYSIS: VAASTUSHASTRA IN NEWAR LANGUAGE SITE INVESTIGATIONS SITE AND SOIL INVESTIGATIONS SOME SENSIBLE OTHERS APPEARING ESOTERIC TO MODERN MIND 1.SITE with soil of white color and smell of milk is best, red color soil is second best, brown soil with alkaline taste is third ranking and green soil with bitter taste like that of ginger is fourth – seems like a grading based on vegetation, moisture and salt content 2.Dig a hole 1KU cube and fill back - falls short, site is poor, level medium and if in excess best. 3.Dig a hole 2KU cube, make a mandala in the middle of the floor, white flower to the east, red flower to the west, yellow to north and black in south, etc. 4.Mandala of ‘saledo’ with different colours is also stated 5. Sites with different grasses also yield sites of differing quality International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 16 Site Investigations Folio 24 (Recto) – 25 (Verso) FOLIO 25 (Recto)

17 VAASTUSHASTRA: HOUSE PATTERNS Folio 36 (Recto): House Patterns 37If there are blocks in all the four corners and (sides and) all the four axes blocks are vacant, it will lead to gain in riches, happiness, will be capable of taking on the foes. 38If there is a courtyard house with only the central block in the west blank, it will bring great pains. International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL CONDITIONING FACTORS 1.East: Surya/Srigriha 2.South: Yama/Sleeping room 3.West: Varuna/Dining 4.North: Soma/Treasure room 5.Gaps are not entrances! 38 CONDITIONING FACTORS 1 COURTYARD with one opening on west 2 West is Varuna/Water 3 West entrance: Loss of wealth 4 So how does great pain come into the picture?

18 VAASTUSHASTRA: Innovations in Residential buildings of Malla period Folio 52 (Recto): House Patterns 98If there is a block each on east and on south, this will bring loss of riches, ill health and sorrow. 99If all the corners and the main blocks are built as one and all the left blocks are also tightly built, this will lead to gain of riches and family. International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 18 Explanation From the main text, only a few parameters are made clear, the patterns give very many choices, this may have just been to bring variety to the urbanscape and also address diversity of expectations and problems in human life ? Explanation Courtyard forms with inward look are most recommended in the manuscript - this may have actually made the high density low rise residential development possible ?

19 NEWAR VAASTUSHASTRA: ARCHITECTURAL VOCABULARY ATAPA: Brick BA: Orientation BYA, BYAYAMA: WidthTHASAMA: Ridge Beam CULI: FinialPHADA: Plinth MALAVASI: Ridge PostLIPHU: Bay KVACILA: NicheKHASI: Door Post KHADU: Door SillKVAKHALU: Bottom Sill DUSALA: FoundationDU: Length International Conference on TIM 2012 NEPAL 19 Folio 22 Verso NEW WORDS ? ETAHATA GUTINI PALIVARA DEPHALI KERA DUNGALA


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