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 starter activity Watch the short film clip about the Great Terror. Why did so many Russians continue to support Stalin?  Can you see links with other.

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Presentation on theme: " starter activity Watch the short film clip about the Great Terror. Why did so many Russians continue to support Stalin?  Can you see links with other."— Presentation transcript:

1  starter activity Watch the short film clip about the Great Terror. Why did so many Russians continue to support Stalin?  Can you see links with other periods of history?

2 Why did the Great Terror escalate? TBAT describe the features of 3 key ‘show trials’ & changes to the NKVD To assess the impact on the Great Terror on Russian society  Learning objectives  Key words: purge Great Terror NKVD

3  Your task Read p (Bunce) and take notes on Read p (Bunce) and take notes on Trial of the Sixteen (1936) Trial of the Sixteen (1936) Trial of the Seventeen (1937) Trial of the Seventeen (1937) Trial of the Twenty-One (1938) Trial of the Twenty-One (1938) Focus on the key individuals, charges & outcome  Were there any similarities between the trials?  Were there any similarities between the trials?

4 Trial of the Sixteen (1936) Key individuals: Zinoviev & Kamenev Key individuals: Zinoviev & Kamenev Charges: murder of Kirov; plotting to disrupt FYP; conspiracy to overthrow State Charges: murder of Kirov; plotting to disrupt FYP; conspiracy to overthrow State Outcome: ‘Shoot the mad dogs, every last one of them!’ (Judge Vyshinsky) Outcome: ‘Shoot the mad dogs, every last one of them!’ (Judge Vyshinsky)

5 Trial of the Seventeen (1937) Individuals: Trotsky’s former allies Individuals: Trotsky’s former allies Charges: plotting with foreign powers, terrorism, sabotage, contact with Trotsky Charges: plotting with foreign powers, terrorism, sabotage, contact with Trotsky Outcome: 13 out 0f 17 executed, remainder sent to gulags Outcome: 13 out 0f 17 executed, remainder sent to gulags Soviet labour camp

6 Trial of the Twenty-One (1938) Individuals: Bukharin, Rykov & ‘accomplices’ Individuals: Bukharin, Rykov & ‘accomplices’ Charges: overthrow of socialism; murder of Kirov; attempted assassination of Lenin Charges: overthrow of socialism; murder of Kirov; attempted assassination of Lenin Outcome: described as ‘a foul-smelling heap of human garbage’ (Vyshinsky) & executed Outcome: described as ‘a foul-smelling heap of human garbage’ (Vyshinsky) & executed

7  Your task Read p and note down: Read p and note down: Changes in the NKVD Changes in the NKVD Explain the impact of Yezhovshchina on the Party, the army and Russian society Explain the impact of Yezhovshchina on the Party, the army and Russian society

8 Changes to NKVD Changes in leadership: Yagoda replaced by Yezhov & executed (Trial of 21) Changes in leadership: Yagoda replaced by Yezhov & executed (Trial of 21) Recruitment: less restrained agents employed Recruitment: less restrained agents employed Targets: for arrests, executions & exiles Targets: for arrests, executions & exiles Purges within NKVD: removed ‘old fashioned’ communists Purges within NKVD: removed ‘old fashioned’ communists Yezhov – now you see him, now you don’t!

9 Impact of purges Impact on Party: , 330,000 Party members convicted as ‘enemies of the people’ Impact on Party: , 330,000 Party members convicted as ‘enemies of the people’ Army: senior generals tortured & executed; 34,000 soldiers ‘purged’ from Red Army Army: senior generals tortured & executed; 34,000 soldiers ‘purged’ from Red Army Society: NKVD Order no , targeted 250,000 ‘anti-Soviet elements’ Society: NKVD Order no , targeted 250,000 ‘anti-Soviet elements’ Lavrenti Beria replaced Yezhov and his agents tracked down Trotsky in Mexico, killing him with a pick axe

10  Your task Read p and under these headings note down effects of the Great Terror: Read p and under these headings note down effects of the Great Terror: Social impact Social impact Economic impact Economic impact Political impact Political impact

11 Social impact Scale of suffering: (Yagoda), ½ million people convicted – 2,300 shot, 405,0000 labour camps, or ‘disappeared’ Scale of suffering: (Yagoda), ½ million people convicted – 2,300 shot, 405,0000 labour camps, or ‘disappeared’ Certain social groups: urban & educated, aged 30-45, managers & professionals Certain social groups: urban & educated, aged 30-45, managers & professionals Ethnic groups: Poles, Romanians & Latvians esp. targeted Ethnic groups: Poles, Romanians & Latvians esp. targeted Children: expelled from uni or publicly humiliated by teachers & Komsomol Children: expelled from uni or publicly humiliated by teachers & Komsomol

12 Social impact Factory managers ‘purged’: Yaroslavl trials, workers from rubber factory staged show trials of managers & handed them over to NKVD Factory managers ‘purged’: Yaroslavl trials, workers from rubber factory staged show trials of managers & handed them over to NKVD Purge of party membership: 1937, massive purges of Party leadership Purge of party membership: 1937, massive purges of Party leadership Emergence of ‘former people’: priests, NEPmen, Kulaks etc. invented new identities, e.g. Valdimir Gromov Emergence of ‘former people’: priests, NEPmen, Kulaks etc. invented new identities, e.g. Valdimir Gromov

13 Economic impact Problems with statistics: targets & plans distorted due to exaggerated statistics Problems with statistics: targets & plans distorted due to exaggerated statistics Lack of leadership: many members of Gosplan & factory managers ‘purged’ Lack of leadership: many members of Gosplan & factory managers ‘purged’ Case study: Donbas region – coal production fell during Great Terror Case study: Donbas region – coal production fell during Great Terror

14 Political impact Consolidated Stalin’s position: removal of opponents & Trotskyites Consolidated Stalin’s position: removal of opponents & Trotskyites Deflected criticism from Stalin: diverted public attention from shortages & enabled people to settle personal scores or blame scapegoats, e.g. Kazan party officials Deflected criticism from Stalin: diverted public attention from shortages & enabled people to settle personal scores or blame scapegoats, e.g. Kazan party officials Estimated death toll of Great Terror (1937-8): 500,000 – 1,500,0000 Numbers sent to gulags: 2,0000,000

15  Group task On a sheet of paper draw a chart similar to the one below. Position the words ‘social’, ‘economic’ and ‘political’ accordingly. Find 3 pieces of evidence explaining your points. Write a ‘REAL’ paragraph explaining your judgement. On a sheet of paper draw a chart similar to the one below. Position the words ‘social’, ‘economic’ and ‘political’ accordingly. Find 3 pieces of evidence explaining your points. Write a ‘REAL’ paragraph explaining your judgement. Level of impact Number of people affected What was the most significant impact of the Great Terror?

16  Extension task Produce factoids on Yezhov and Lavrenti Beria Produce factoids on Yezhov and Lavrenti Beria Read the extract from Fiehn & Corin, p & p and take notes on the extent to which Stalin was responsible for the terror alone. Read the extract from Fiehn & Corin, p & p and take notes on the extent to which Stalin was responsible for the terror alone. Photograph allegedly showing Stalin signing death warrants

17  Homework Read p and complete a table similar to the one shown on p.83 Read p and complete a table similar to the one shown on p.83 Prepare for a timed essay question on the use of Terror and the arts Prepare for a timed essay question on the use of Terror and the arts

18 Why did the Great Terror escalate? TBAT describe the features of 3 key ‘show trials’ & changes to the NKVD To assess the impact on the Great Terror on Russian society  Learning objectives  Key words: purge Great Terror NKVD


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