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Communism in Russia Communist Revolution. Karl Marx Bourgeoisie V Proletariat ‘Communist Manifesto’ with Engels ‘the Proletariat have nothing to lose.

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Presentation on theme: "Communism in Russia Communist Revolution. Karl Marx Bourgeoisie V Proletariat ‘Communist Manifesto’ with Engels ‘the Proletariat have nothing to lose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communism in Russia Communist Revolution

2 Karl Marx Bourgeoisie V Proletariat ‘Communist Manifesto’ with Engels ‘the Proletariat have nothing to lose but their chains’ ‘Workers of the world, unite!’ ‘Das Kapital’ Removal of profit Factors of production in state hands. Worldwide revolution in industrialised countries.

3 Lenin (early years) Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. Became a lawyer but exiled to Siberia for political activities. Became a lawyer but exiled to Siberia for political activities. Moved to Switzerland and became editor of ‘Iskra’ Moved to Switzerland and became editor of ‘Iskra’ Engineered split between Bolsheviks (elitist) and Mensheviks (populist). Engineered split between Bolsheviks (elitist) and Mensheviks (populist). Good speaker. Good speaker.

4 Lenin’s Russia 1917 led the October Revolution and became ruler of Soviet Russia 1917 led the October Revolution and became ruler of Soviet Russia 1917 Brest-Litovsk lost 1/3 of land and ½ of industry 1917 Brest-Litovsk lost 1/3 of land and ½ of industry 1918 shot. Never fully recovered shot. Never fully recovered led the Reds against the Whites in the Civil War led the Reds against the Whites in the Civil War dropped War Communism in favour of the New Economic Policy dropped War Communism in favour of the New Economic Policy. This meant: This meant: Stopped taking all food from peasants. Took 10% and allowed them to sell the rest. Stopped taking all food from peasants. Took 10% and allowed them to sell the rest. Small factories returned to their owners. Small factories returned to their owners. The NEP improved things but food was still scarce and expensive. The NEP improved things but food was still scarce and expensive. Many regarded as a betrayal of communist ideals. Many regarded as a betrayal of communist ideals a stroke may explain failure to appoint a successor a stroke may explain failure to appoint a successor died of a brain haemorrhage 1924 died of a brain haemorrhage

5 Assessment Millions died in war and starvation. Landlords gone Less exploitation by industrialists. Realistic in transitional approach. Showed the effectiveness of terror against opponents. Creation of elite made it possible for Stalin to come to power. In his ‘Political Will’ he warned of the danger of giving Stalin power.

6 Stalin Seizes Power Stalin, Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev in a power struggle. Stalin, Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev in a power struggle. Other 3 turned against Trotsky who still favoured world revolution. Other 3 turned against Trotsky who still favoured world revolution. Stalin proposed ‘Socialism in one country’ Stalin proposed ‘Socialism in one country’ 1927 Trotsky expelled from the Party, later banished from USSR and assassinated in Trotsky expelled from the Party, later banished from USSR and assassinated in Stalin turned on the other two, claiming they were too liberal and they were expelled from the Party and executed in the 1936 purge Stalin turned on the other two, claiming they were too liberal and they were expelled from the Party and executed in the 1936 purge. Stalin was now addressed as ‘Vozhd’ (leader) Stalin was now addressed as ‘Vozhd’ (leader)

7 Stalin’s Economic Policies Stalin’s main aim was to turn USSR into an industrial and military power quickly. Stalin’s main aim was to turn USSR into an industrial and military power quickly. The state planning body, Gosplan, came up with 5 year plans. The state planning body, Gosplan, came up with 5 year plans. In order for these to succeed, rural workers had to be moved to the cities. In order for these to succeed, rural workers had to be moved to the cities.

8 First 5 Year Plan State took control of all aspects of the economy. State took control of all aspects of the economy. It was a law setting targets rather than a plan. It was a law setting targets rather than a plan. 250% increase in industrial production. 150% in agriculture. 250% increase in industrial production. 150% in agriculture. Infrastructure (power stations, mines, railways, canals and roads), industrial and agricultural machinery were given priority Infrastructure (power stations, mines, railways, canals and roads), industrial and agricultural machinery were given priority

9 Second Plan Focus on heavy industry and agricultural equipment continued. Stakhanov (15 times his quota) became a national hero Extra pay, holidays and prizes for great workers. Huge hours, accidents common, dreadful conditions. Unemployment not tolerated. Scale of projects (Magnitogorsk) was enormous The third Plan started to produce radios, bicycles and other household goods but war put an end to that.

10 Assessment Great success economically. Great success economically. Human cost huge. Human cost huge. Full employment did mean a better standard of living. Full employment did mean a better standard of living. Figures were often exaggerated. Figures were often exaggerated. Quality of goods often poor. Quality of goods often poor. Big emphasis on education Big emphasis on education

11 Collectivisation Stalin believed peasants were hoarding grain and reducing production to push prices up. Stalin believed peasants were hoarding grain and reducing production to push prices up. He also wanted 25 million workers for industry He also wanted 25 million workers for industry Collective farms (kolkhoz) Collective farms (kolkhoz) Kulaks preferred to destroy their farms than give them up. Kulaks preferred to destroy their farms than give them up. Over 5 million were executed or deported. Over 5 million were executed or deported. Agricultural production dropped as farmers did little on the collectives. Agricultural production dropped as farmers did little on the collectives about 10 million died of famine as a result of this and bad harvests about 10 million died of famine as a result of this and bad harvests. Eventually things improved but never reached targets Eventually things improved but never reached targets

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13 THE RED TERROR Stalin’s Purges

14 Repression Under Stalin Stalin’s Paranoia Stalin’s Paranoia ‘Class Enemies’ or ‘wreckers’. Engineers and industrial planners suffered. ‘Class Enemies’ or ‘wreckers’. Engineers and industrial planners suffered. Stalin called for the ‘liquidation of the Kulaks as a class’. 1 million killed or deported. Stalin called for the ‘liquidation of the Kulaks as a class’. 1 million killed or deported. Half of the 35,000 officer class executed of jailed. Half of the 35,000 officer class executed of jailed. Informers everywhere Informers everywhere

15 The Gulag This was a prison system that was really a slave labour camp. This was a prison system that was really a slave labour camp. Millions died Millions died Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s ‘Gulag Archipelago’ Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s ‘Gulag Archipelago’

16 Moscow Show Trials: Case Study The Ryutin Platform The Ryutin Platform Many were against forced collectivisation. Many were against forced collectivisation. Martemyan Ryutin was the most vocal. Martemyan Ryutin was the most vocal. Stalin wanted him killed but it was 1932 and he was outvoted (1932). Stalin wanted him killed but it was 1932 and he was outvoted (1932). Sergei Kirov did most to save Ryutin (got 10 years and died in jail). Sergei Kirov did most to save Ryutin (got 10 years and died in jail).

17 The ‘Kirov Flood’ Kirov was very popular in the Party was murdered, probably on Stalin’s orders. Kirov was very popular in the Party was murdered, probably on Stalin’s orders. Stalin used the murder as an excuse for the secret police (NKVD) to arrest all possible opponents, their families and friends. Stalin used the murder as an excuse for the secret police (NKVD) to arrest all possible opponents, their families and friends. This included Kamenev and Zinoviev. This included Kamenev and Zinoviev. A massive ‘cult of the leader’ propaganda campaign was in progress with an emphasis on the ‘enemies of the people’. A massive ‘cult of the leader’ propaganda campaign was in progress with an emphasis on the ‘enemies of the people’. Thousands were sentenced to death. Thousands were sentenced to death.

18 1936 The First Show Trial These trials were big media events in front of carefully chosen audience and foreign correspondents. Kamenev, Zinoviev and 14 others accused of killing Kirov, of plotting to kill Stalin’ of being wreckers and of being Trotskyites. All pleaded guilty and all executed within 24 hours. Their families and friends ‘disappeared’.

19 The 1937 Show Trial 17 pro Trotsky supporters ‘admitted’ that Trotsky had organised wrecking. 17 pro Trotsky supporters ‘admitted’ that Trotsky had organised wrecking. 2 were spared because they implicated Bukharin, Rykov and Kretinsky who had been members of Lenin’s Politburo. 2 were spared because they implicated Bukharin, Rykov and Kretinsky who had been members of Lenin’s Politburo. They died in jail anyway They died in jail anyway

20 The 1938 Show Trial Bukharin had wanted to continue with the NEP. Torture, interrogation and finally threatening his family forced him and the others to confess to sabotage and spying. They also implicated others. They were executed.

21 The Final Figures At least 7 million executed or died in the Gulag. At least 7 million executed or died in the Gulag. 10 million from famine. 10 million from famine. Between 19 and 22 million in all excluding war victims. Between 19 and 22 million in all excluding war victims.


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