Presentation on theme: "Lesson 1 – Opposition Essential Question What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934? Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Learn about early resistance."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 1 – Opposition Essential Question What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934? Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Learn about early resistance to Stalin Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934
Vocab Purge Chistka 17 th Party Congress Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934
Purges ‘cleaning out’ or ‘cleansing’ an organism of impurities ◦ Chistka (cleansing) – nonviolent where when membership came up for renewal, they would be refused new cards Expelled for drunkenness, corruption and not being an active member 3 phases of the purges in the 1930s 1.Chistka of 1932~5 – 20% of party members are expelled non-violently 2.Show Trials – old Bolsheviks publically tried and executed 3.The Great Terror of 1937~8 – 1000s of party members, officials, armed forces and professionals were denounced, arrested and executed
Party Popularity 1933 – Communist Party was extremely unpopular ◦ Rapid industrialization had created tension and stress in society ◦ Violence of forced collectivization and the famine of 1932-33 had alienated the peasantry, making the murder of rural Communist a regular event ◦ Urban workers were angered by low wages, strict controls and harsh punishments Party members are angry ◦ Cities were overcrowded, insanitary and violent ◦ Horrified by the terror methods used to collectivize agriculture and waging of war on the peasants ◦ Some even committed suicide (ex. Stalin’s wife Nadezda Allilueva) ◦ Local leaders in the regions were unwilling to implement central policies and orders Argued about high grain prices, unwilling to identify kulaks or get rid of specialists who might help them reach production targets
1. Chistka (1932~35) Dec 1932 - Party leaders became angry with this lack of party discipline resulting in the launching of the Chistka of party members ◦ Target: ‘do not carry out decisions…and who are turncoats who have allied themselves with bourgeois elements’ ◦ By 1935 – 22% of party members had lost their membership Also used to expel those who disagreed with Stalin’s party line
Ryutin Affair 1932 – Former Moscow Party Secretary, Ryutin, circulated a 200 pg. document highly critical of Stalin ◦ Called Stalin ‘the evil genius of the Russian revolution’ referring to his ‘personal dictatorship,’ urged Stalin’s removal and to end collectivization ◦ Stalin wanted the death penalty but other members of the Politburo opposed Stalin and Ryutin wasn’t executed What does this incident show about Stalin’s power?
17 th Party Congress 1934 Jan 1934 – Pravada announced ‘Socialism in One Country has Won’ 26 February 1934 – 17 th Congress is called ‘Congress of Victors’ ◦ Belief economic change had been accomplished and it was now possible to slow down, stabilize and reduce the tensions caused by collectivization and rapid industrialization ◦ Stalin made it clear he would not slacken the pace of industrialization ◦ Sergei Kirov (Leningrad Party Boss) said ‘the fundamental difficulties are behind us’ and talked about stopping grain seizures and increasing workers rations ◦ Stalin did badly in Central Committee elections Kirov – 3 voted against him Stalin – 292 voted against him (Stalin changed this to 3) Kirov was asked by party members to replace Stalin as General Secretary (He refused) Is Stalin an all-powerful dictator?
What sort of opposition to Stalin had developed before 1934? Using today’s notes and pages 34-35, write a paragraph explaining what opposition Stalin faced before 1934 and why. Consider: ◦ Why the Communist Party was unpopular with the people ◦ Why many Communist were distressed by Stalin’s policies ◦ What opposition Stalin faced in the regions ◦ The Chistka of 1932-35 ◦ Opposition within the Party leadership ◦ Stalin’s difficulties at the 17 th Party Congress Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934
Wrap Up Can we answer our question? With your partner, discuss possible answers What What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934?