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Lesson 1 – Opposition Essential Question What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934? Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Learn about early resistance.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 1 – Opposition Essential Question What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934? Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Learn about early resistance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 1 – Opposition Essential Question What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934? Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Learn about early resistance to Stalin Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934

2 Vocab Purge Chistka 17 th Party Congress Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934

3 Purges ‘cleaning out’ or ‘cleansing’ an organism of impurities ◦ Chistka (cleansing) – nonviolent where when membership came up for renewal, they would be refused new cards  Expelled for drunkenness, corruption and not being an active member 3 phases of the purges in the 1930s 1.Chistka of 1932~5 – 20% of party members are expelled non-violently 2.Show Trials – old Bolsheviks publically tried and executed 3.The Great Terror of 1937~8 – 1000s of party members, officials, armed forces and professionals were denounced, arrested and executed

4 Party Popularity 1933 – Communist Party was extremely unpopular ◦ Rapid industrialization had created tension and stress in society ◦ Violence of forced collectivization and the famine of had alienated the peasantry, making the murder of rural Communist a regular event ◦ Urban workers were angered by low wages, strict controls and harsh punishments Party members are angry ◦ Cities were overcrowded, insanitary and violent ◦ Horrified by the terror methods used to collectivize agriculture and waging of war on the peasants ◦ Some even committed suicide (ex. Stalin’s wife Nadezda Allilueva) ◦ Local leaders in the regions were unwilling to implement central policies and orders  Argued about high grain prices, unwilling to identify kulaks or get rid of specialists who might help them reach production targets

5 1. Chistka (1932~35) Dec Party leaders became angry with this lack of party discipline resulting in the launching of the Chistka of party members ◦ Target: ‘do not carry out decisions…and who are turncoats who have allied themselves with bourgeois elements’ ◦ By 1935 – 22% of party members had lost their membership  Also used to expel those who disagreed with Stalin’s party line

6 Ryutin Affair 1932 – Former Moscow Party Secretary, Ryutin, circulated a 200 pg. document highly critical of Stalin ◦ Called Stalin ‘the evil genius of the Russian revolution’ referring to his ‘personal dictatorship,’ urged Stalin’s removal and to end collectivization ◦ Stalin wanted the death penalty but other members of the Politburo opposed Stalin and Ryutin wasn’t executed What does this incident show about Stalin’s power?

7 17 th Party Congress 1934 Jan 1934 – Pravada announced ‘Socialism in One Country has Won’ 26 February 1934 – 17 th Congress is called ‘Congress of Victors’ ◦ Belief economic change had been accomplished and it was now possible to slow down, stabilize and reduce the tensions caused by collectivization and rapid industrialization ◦ Stalin made it clear he would not slacken the pace of industrialization ◦ Sergei Kirov (Leningrad Party Boss) said ‘the fundamental difficulties are behind us’ and talked about stopping grain seizures and increasing workers rations ◦ Stalin did badly in Central Committee elections  Kirov – 3 voted against him  Stalin – 292 voted against him (Stalin changed this to 3)  Kirov was asked by party members to replace Stalin as General Secretary (He refused) Is Stalin an all-powerful dictator?

8 What sort of opposition to Stalin had developed before 1934? Using today’s notes and pages 34-35, write a paragraph explaining what opposition Stalin faced before 1934 and why. Consider: ◦ Why the Communist Party was unpopular with the people ◦ Why many Communist were distressed by Stalin’s policies ◦ What opposition Stalin faced in the regions ◦ The Chistka of ◦ Opposition within the Party leadership ◦ Stalin’s difficulties at the 17 th Party Congress Success Criteria I can write an extended paragraph explaining the opposition Stalin faced before 1934

9 Wrap Up Can we answer our question? With your partner, discuss possible answers What What opposition developed towards Stalin before 1934?


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