2Warm UpWelcome back! In your notebook, describe what the electromagnetic spectrum is. How is it organized? What part of it can we see? Answer in at least three complete sentences!
3ReadingRead pages EE 10 – EE 11 in your Ever Changing Earth Book. Take notes and be prepared to discuss on Java, Indonesia.
4Warm Up 1.7Read EE 12 & EE 13 on the Baja Peninsula. Take notes while reading and be prepared to discuss what you learned.
5Java, Indonesia Facts Location : Southeast Asia 13th largest island in the world, 5th largest in IndonesiaPopulation: 141 millionAlmost entirely volcanic origin, contains 45 active volcanoesNatural environment: tropical rainforestHighest Elevation: 12,060 feetMost recent eruption: February 14th, 2014
6VocabularyVolcano: A vent in the surface of earth through which magma and associated gases and ash eruptEarthquake: a sudden motion or trembling in Earth caused by the abrupt release of slowly accumulated strainGeology: The study of planet Earth: the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and all its forms since its origin.Earth structure: a definable shape formed by geologic activityGeologist a person who is trained in and works in any of the geologic sciences.
7Think about the structure of the Earth Get started:With a partner, you will be assigned one of the geologic events pictured on pages 61 & 62 and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper to turn in.What changes occurred in the area you selected? Changes might be large or small. You might notice the size, shape or position of parts of the area may have changed. Describe each of these changesWhat evidence do you see in the photographs that might indicate earth’s surface is not one continuous piece?** You and your partner will be graded on your answers so you must be VERY DETAILED!
8ConferenceNow meet with other people who observed the same picture as you do. Share what you observed.Take notes on your group discussion on the sheet of paper to be turned in.
9Warm Up 1.8Read pages EE14-EE15 on the Hawaiian Islands. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Hawaii in a discussion!
10Hawaiian Island factsLocation: Southwest United States, made up of 8 islands50th of all the statesNatural environment: TropicalPopulation: millionHighest elevation: 13,796 ftNumber of volcanos: 12 but there are many others in the oceanMost recent eruption: March 5th, 2011Home to Mt. Kilauea , the largest volcano on earth which rises 25 miles above sea level
11Stop and ThinkRead Benny’s letter on page EE65 and answer the stop and think questions 1-5 on page EE 66.Answer in complete sentencesFinish with reading ‘What’s the point?’
12Warm Up 1.9Read pages EE16-EE17 on Iceland. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Iceland in a discussion!
13Iceland Facts Location: South of the Arctic Circle, near Europe Population: 322,000 peopleNatural Environment: sub polar oceanic, highly volcanic34 Volcanoes, some active, some inactiveMost recent eruption was January 3rd, Bardarbunga
15Warm up 1.13Take a few minutes to review for your 2nd quarter post-test quietly!
16Warm Up 1.12Read pages EE 18 & EE 19 on Mount Everest. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.
17Vocabulary 2.4Plates: sheets of rock that include part of Earth’s crustPlate tectonics: the theory that Earth’s crust is divided into a number of plates, and the study of how the plates move and interact with one anotherComposition: The parts, ingredients or elements that form a wholeSeismology: The study of earth quakes and the structure of the earth, using information from seismic wavesSeismic wave: a general term for waves produced by earthquakes or artificially through explosions
18Warm Up 1.14Read pages EE 20 & EE 21 on Mount Fuji. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.
19Japan Facts Location: Island nation in East Asia Population: 126,659,000 people118 Volcanoes, makes up 10% of the worlds volcanoesBelongs to the Pacific Ring of FireMost recent explosion: March 11th, 2014
20Density LabYou will be placed in groups of 4-6 students. Follow all directions for the lab and wear safety goggles while working on the activity. Fill out your density lab worksheet and answer questions 1-6 on the back to be turned in for a class grade. Each member of the group will have one job title. If anyone does not follow these guidelines, they will be asked not to participate.Group ManagerReaderSupplies gathererSafety coordinatorCleanup (Everyone)
21Warm Up 1.15Read Pages EE 22 – EE 23 on Argentina. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
22Warm Up 1.16Read Pages EE 24 – EE 25 on Mount Popo. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
23Brainstorm With a partner… Think of a better way to represent the Earth’s structure than Benny’s Egg model. Be descriptive and explain what each layer would be. Write a letter back to Benny describing the earth layers in your model.Use the bullet points on the top of page 84 to guide you.
24Earth Systems Vocabulary Atmosphere: the part of earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround earthBiosphere: the part of earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals & plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter.Hydrosphere: the part of earth’s system that includes all of the planet’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor.Geosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.
25Plate Boundaries the area along the edges of earth’s plates Some of the most geologically active parts of earth’s surfaceMost earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formations occur near plate boundaries
262.4 Vocabulary continuedFault: a fracture (break or crack) through rock, along which the masses of rock on either side of the fracture moveFold: a bend in rocksFault block mountain: mountains that form when one side of a fault is lifted above the other side
27Crust Oceanic Continental: The part of earth’s crust that are under the oceanThese parts are the thinnestDensity of 3.0 g/cm3Continental:The part of earth’s crust that form the continentsThicker than oceanic crustLess dense than oceanic crustDensity of 2.7 g/cm3
29Stop and Think Pg 79Answer the questions on page 79 in your notebook.
302.4 Vocabulary ContinuedLithosphere: the right outer layer of earth, made of the crust and the solid, uppermost part of the mantleAsthenosphere: a region of earth’s interior immediately below the lithosphere where mantle rocks are hot enough and under enough pressure to deform, change shape, and flowOuter core: the outer layer of earth’s core made of melted, liquid metal.Molten: made liquid by heatInner core: the inner layer of earth’s core believed to be made of solid iron and nickel
31Warm Up 1.20Read Pages EE 26 – EE 27 on Tanzania. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
32Tanzania Facts A country in East Africa Population: 44 million people Has 9 volcanoes in Tanzania, Mt. Kilamanjaro being the largestMarch 11, 2008 (Ol Doinyo Lengai)Is a part of the Great African Rift Valley
33Earth SystemsAtmosphere: the part of Earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround Earth.Biosphere: The part of Earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals and plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter.Includes parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.Hydrosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes all of the planet’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor.Geosphere: The part of earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.
34Warm Up 1.21Explain why you think the Earth’s plates move and cause geologic activity? Answer in 2-3 COMPLETE sentences.
35Lab QuestionsFinish answering questions 1-6 on pages 81 & 82 on your density lab. We will go over these in class. You will be turning in your lab worksheet for class grade so make sure they are complete sentences!
36Cracking UpRead the article ‘Cracking Up’ and answer the questions on the worksheet for a grade.
37Cracking UpIf you have not finished the ‘Cracking up’ reading and worksheet you have fifteen minutes to do so now. It must be turned in by the end of the class. It counts as a classwork grade.
38Lab ActivityYou will work in partners with the person sitting next to you at your desk. You MUST follow the Procedure for this lab on page 93. You will be given a worksheet to fill out while doing this lab. When you have finished cleaning up after the lab answer REFLECT questions 1-3 on page 95. You can answer those questions on the back of the worksheet.
39Warm UpWhat is the importance of knowing where plate boundaries are? Give specific examples.
40Warm UpClear your desk and make sure that you have a pencil sharpened. We will be taking the third quarter pretest shortly.
41Learning Set 3 VocabTsunami: a series of huge ocean waves often triggered by an underwater earthquake.Stress: a force that squeezes rocks together, stretches or pulls them apart or pushes them in different directionsFocus: the point where part of the crust breaks loose and moves suddenly, causing an earthquakeVibrations: back and forth motions that carry energy from one place to anotherEpicenter: the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake, often where the most damage from an earthquake occurs
42Learning Set 3.2 cont’dBody waves: seismic waves that travel through earth.Surface waves: seismic waves that travel along the surface of the earth.P-waves (primary): longitudinal seismic waves that can travel through solids, liquids, or gases, and are the fastest type of seismic waves.S-waves (secondary): transverse seismic waves that can travel only through solids and are slower than P waves.
43Warm up 1.30Explain how the energy of an earthquake travels. Be very specific with the vocabulary we have learned.
44Warm Up 2.2What is the difference between P-waves & S-waves? How do they travel? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.
45Longitudinal wave: a type of wave that travels through Earth in a push-pull pattern. Transverse wave: a type of wave in which particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
46How do scientists collect and evaluate data from earthquakes? Read pages and fill in and answer the reading guide.
47Reading GuideFinish 3.3 Reading Guide from pages You will be called up to have your notebook checked. Work quietly.
48Warm up 3.19 & 3.20Give one example of something that would be in each of the earth’s systems. Describe how they all interact with one another. Must answer in complete sentences!
49Warm up 2.3Take five minutes to QUIETLY study your material for the quiz.
50Warm Up 2.4Why can’t you judge an earthquake based upon it’s intensity?When you are done with your warm up read pages in your PBIS book quietly.
51Convection labYou will be placed in four groups to do the convection lab. While doing the lab make sure to consider these questions….How is this like earth’s mantle?What are the driving forces behind the convection current?
52Convection Lab…Answer the following questions… Draw what happened in the convection lab in your notebook.What do you think is causing the warm water to move as it did in the simulation?Water is a liquid that flows easily, but Earth’s mantle is a solid that behaves like a viscous, or very thick liquid. How do you think Earth’s mantle might flow differently than the water?What strengths does this model have for studying the movement of materials in Earth? What are its weaknesses?
532.5 Warm UpHow is a pot of boiling water similar to earth’s mantle? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.
54VocabularyConvection current: the cycle of movement when warm, less-dense fluids rise and cool and more dense fluids sink due to differences in temperaturePlume: a hot, rising, column of mantle material.Mid-ocean ridge: a continuous range through the oceans, which is subject to earthquakesLava: fluid rock that comes from a volcano; becomes solid by cooling
55Vocabulary cont’dOcean-floor spreading: a process by which new ocean floor is created in the area where two plates are moving apart.Ridge push: the push of older crust away from a plate boundarySlab pull: the movement of older crust down toward the center of earth.
56Read 4.3Read Pages with your partner. On page 163 answer the ‘Stop and Think’ questions Skip number two. Once you have answered read and answered the questions you can begin working on Mantle’s story.1. How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material?3. Draw a cross section of Earth, showing the core, mantle, and crust. Draw arrows to represent a convection current in Earth’s mantle.
57Read 4.3When you are done continue reading section 4.3 on pages Answer the reflect questions 1-4 on page 166 in your notebook.
58Warm up 2.6How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.
59Warm Up 2.9Describe the process of ocean-floor spreading. How does this relate to the convection current? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.
60Volcano VocabularyVolcano – Any place in Earth’s crust where mantle material and other substances reach the surface OR an Earth structure formed by the accumulation of lava and other volcanic materials.Volcano fields – clusters of volcanoesActive volcano – currently erupting or expecting to eruptDormant volcano – currently not erupting, erupted in past, likely to erupt againExtinct volcano – not active and not likely to erupt
61Warm up 2.10What is the difference between an active, dormant and extinct volcano. Describe in 2-3 complete sentences.
62Cinder VolcanoesA cone-shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano.
63Shield VolcanoA gently-sloping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area.
64StratovolcanoA steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava.
65VolcanoesCinder– a cone shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcanoShield – a gently- slopping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large areaStratovolcano – a steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava
685.3 ReadRead pages Answer the ‘Stop and Think’ Questions on pages 191, 192, 194, & 197. This ten questions in all. Each question is worth ten points. You must have this completed by the end of the class. All questions must be answered in COMPLETE sentences.
69Warm up 2.11Compare and contrast the three different types of volcanoes that we discussed last class. Answer in complete sentences.
70Warm Up 2.12How do volcanoes impact their surrounding areas? What type of impact does it have on the environment?
71Warm Up 2.19When it is below freezing outside, what causes our house’s water pipes to freeze? Explain why this happens.
72Warm Up 2.20How do you think the convection current shapes our own region in North Carolina? What are some examples?
73Warm Up 2.23What are some of the negatives about living in California? Be specific about geologic activity.
74Warm Up: 2.24 VocabularyIgneous Rock: a rock that has solidified from molten or partly molten materials (magma)Sediment: particles of solid material that have moved from their place of origin by wind, moving water, or glacier ice and deposited on a surfaceSedimentary rock: rock formed from small particles of rock or pieces of once-living things.
75Warm Up 2.25 Fossils: the remains or traces of once living things Metamorphic rock: rock formed by heat and pressure from another kind of rock.Rock cycle: the way in which rocks are continuously recycled over time
76Warm Up 2.27Please provide an example of each of these earth’s spheres….Geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
77Warm Up 3.2Metamorphic rock can become sedimentary rock. Why do you think this is possible? Answer in complete sentences.
78Open Book QuizYou will work independently on an open book quiz covering chapters 5 & 6 in our Earth book.5.3 – Pages6.2 – Pages
79Warm Up 3.3What is the difference between minerals and rocks? Explain in complete sentences.
80Warm Up 3.4What causes a rock to go through a physical change and become another type of rock? Give a specific example.
81Warm Up 3.5How is the Rock Cycle an ever changing cycle? Be specific and give details.
83The Rock Cycle Rock Type How Its Formed Examples Sedimentary Small particles worn away, deposited, and cemented togetherSandstoneConglomerateIgneousFormed from the cooling of molten magmaBasaltPumiceObsidianMetamorphicFormed from heat and pressure from another kind of rockMarble (parent rock = limestone)Slate (parent rock = shale)
86Metamorphic Rocks Marble (parent rock = limestone) Slate (Parent rock = shale)
87http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRaI nMDNyE8 The Rock Cycle VideonMDNyE8
88Warm Up 3.6Get out your 3.2 Study Guide Worksheet. Finish working on it for warm up. Pages A If you finished working on it read quietly.
89SoilLoose covering of rock particles and organic matter at Earth’s surface.Layered into horizons.
90Threats to Soil Quality Sealing (permanent coverings such as roads and buildings)Compaction (pushing rock particles closer together). Causes pore size to decrease.Erosion (by wind and water)ContaminationChange in biodiversityWaste to land contamination(fertililizers)
91Soil vocabularySoil horizon- a soil layer with physical and chemical properties that differ from those of soil layers above or below it.Soil profile- the soil horizons in a specific location; a cross section of soil layers that displays all soil horizons.Soil – mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support plant life
92Soil vocabulary continued Sand – loose granular substance;Clay – a stiff, sticky fine grained earth; forms an impermeable layer in the soilLoam –a fertile soil of clay and sand containing humusHumus- the decayed organic matter in soil