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Ever Changing Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Ever Changing Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ever Changing Earth

2 Warm Up Welcome back! In your notebook, describe what the electromagnetic spectrum is. How is it organized? What part of it can we see? Answer in at least three complete sentences!

3 Reading Read pages EE 10 – EE 11 in your Ever Changing Earth Book. Take notes and be prepared to discuss on Java, Indonesia.

4 Warm Up 1.7 Read EE 12 & EE 13 on the Baja Peninsula. Take notes while reading and be prepared to discuss what you learned.

5 Java, Indonesia Facts Location : Southeast Asia
13th largest island in the world, 5th largest in Indonesia Population: 141 million Almost entirely volcanic origin, contains 45 active volcanoes Natural environment: tropical rainforest Highest Elevation: 12,060 feet Most recent eruption: February 14th, 2014

6 Vocabulary Volcano: A vent in the surface of earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt Earthquake: a sudden motion or trembling in Earth caused by the abrupt release of slowly accumulated strain Geology: The study of planet Earth: the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and all its forms since its origin. Earth structure: a definable shape formed by geologic activity Geologist a person who is trained in and works in any of the geologic sciences.

7 Think about the structure of the Earth
Get started: With a partner, you will be assigned one of the geologic events pictured on pages 61 & 62 and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper to turn in. What changes occurred in the area you selected? Changes might be large or small. You might notice the size, shape or position of parts of the area may have changed. Describe each of these changes What evidence do you see in the photographs that might indicate earth’s surface is not one continuous piece? ** You and your partner will be graded on your answers so you must be VERY DETAILED!

8 Conference Now meet with other people who observed the same picture as you do. Share what you observed. Take notes on your group discussion on the sheet of paper to be turned in.

9 Warm Up 1.8 Read pages EE14-EE15 on the Hawaiian Islands. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Hawaii in a discussion!

10 Hawaiian Island facts Location: Southwest United States, made up of 8 islands 50th of all the states Natural environment: Tropical Population: million Highest elevation: 13,796 ft Number of volcanos: 12 but there are many others in the ocean Most recent eruption: March 5th, 2011 Home to Mt. Kilauea , the largest volcano on earth which rises 25 miles above sea level

11 Stop and Think Read Benny’s letter on page EE65 and answer the stop and think questions 1-5 on page EE 66. Answer in complete sentences Finish with reading ‘What’s the point?’

12 Warm Up 1.9 Read pages EE16-EE17 on Iceland. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Iceland in a discussion!

13 Iceland Facts Location: South of the Arctic Circle, near Europe
Population: 322,000 people Natural Environment: sub polar oceanic, highly volcanic 34 Volcanoes, some active, some inactive Most recent eruption was January 3rd, Bardarbunga

14 Earth’s Layers

15 Warm up 1.13 Take a few minutes to review for your 2nd quarter post-test quietly!

16 Warm Up 1.12 Read pages EE 18 & EE 19 on Mount Everest. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.

17 Vocabulary 2.4 Plates: sheets of rock that include part of Earth’s crust Plate tectonics: the theory that Earth’s crust is divided into a number of plates, and the study of how the plates move and interact with one another Composition: The parts, ingredients or elements that form a whole Seismology: The study of earth quakes and the structure of the earth, using information from seismic waves Seismic wave: a general term for waves produced by earthquakes or artificially through explosions

18 Warm Up 1.14 Read pages EE 20 & EE 21 on Mount Fuji. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.

19 Japan Facts Location: Island nation in East Asia
Population: 126,659,000 people 118 Volcanoes, makes up 10% of the worlds volcanoes Belongs to the Pacific Ring of Fire Most recent explosion: March 11th, 2014

20 Density Lab You will be placed in groups of 4-6 students. Follow all directions for the lab and wear safety goggles while working on the activity. Fill out your density lab worksheet and answer questions 1-6 on the back to be turned in for a class grade. Each member of the group will have one job title. If anyone does not follow these guidelines, they will be asked not to participate. Group Manager Reader Supplies gatherer Safety coordinator Cleanup (Everyone)

21 Warm Up 1.15 Read Pages EE 22 – EE 23 on Argentina. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

22 Warm Up 1.16 Read Pages EE 24 – EE 25 on Mount Popo. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

23 Brainstorm With a partner…
Think of a better way to represent the Earth’s structure than Benny’s Egg model. Be descriptive and explain what each layer would be. Write a letter back to Benny describing the earth layers in your model. Use the bullet points on the top of page 84 to guide you.

24 Earth Systems Vocabulary
Atmosphere: the part of earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround earth Biosphere: the part of earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals & plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter. Hydrosphere: the part of earth’s system that includes all of the planet’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor. Geosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.

25 Plate Boundaries the area along the edges of earth’s plates
Some of the most geologically active parts of earth’s surface Most earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formations occur near plate boundaries

26 2.4 Vocabulary continued Fault: a fracture (break or crack) through rock, along which the masses of rock on either side of the fracture move Fold: a bend in rocks Fault block mountain: mountains that form when one side of a fault is lifted above the other side

27 Crust Oceanic Continental:
The part of earth’s crust that are under the ocean These parts are the thinnest Density of 3.0 g/cm3 Continental: The part of earth’s crust that form the continents Thicker than oceanic crust Less dense than oceanic crust Density of 2.7 g/cm3


29 Stop and Think Pg 79 Answer the questions on page 79 in your notebook.

30 2.4 Vocabulary Continued Lithosphere: the right outer layer of earth, made of the crust and the solid, uppermost part of the mantle Asthenosphere: a region of earth’s interior immediately below the lithosphere where mantle rocks are hot enough and under enough pressure to deform, change shape, and flow Outer core: the outer layer of earth’s core made of melted, liquid metal. Molten: made liquid by heat Inner core: the inner layer of earth’s core believed to be made of solid iron and nickel

31 Warm Up 1.20 Read Pages EE 26 – EE 27 on Tanzania. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

32 Tanzania Facts A country in East Africa Population: 44 million people
Has 9 volcanoes in Tanzania, Mt. Kilamanjaro being the largest March 11, 2008 (Ol Doinyo Lengai) Is a part of the Great African Rift Valley

33 Earth Systems Atmosphere: the part of Earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround Earth. Biosphere: The part of Earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals and plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter. Includes parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Hydrosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes all of the planet’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor. Geosphere: The part of earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.

34 Warm Up 1.21 Explain why you think the Earth’s plates move and cause geologic activity? Answer in 2-3 COMPLETE sentences.

35 Lab Questions Finish answering questions 1-6 on pages 81 & 82 on your density lab. We will go over these in class. You will be turning in your lab worksheet for class grade so make sure they are complete sentences!

36 Cracking Up Read the article ‘Cracking Up’ and answer the questions on the worksheet for a grade.

37 Cracking Up If you have not finished the ‘Cracking up’ reading and worksheet you have fifteen minutes to do so now. It must be turned in by the end of the class. It counts as a classwork grade.

38 Lab Activity You will work in partners with the person sitting next to you at your desk. You MUST follow the Procedure for this lab on page 93. You will be given a worksheet to fill out while doing this lab. When you have finished cleaning up after the lab answer REFLECT questions 1-3 on page 95. You can answer those questions on the back of the worksheet.

39 Warm Up What is the importance of knowing where plate boundaries are? Give specific examples.

40 Warm Up Clear your desk and make sure that you have a pencil sharpened. We will be taking the third quarter pretest shortly.

41 Learning Set 3 Vocab Tsunami: a series of huge ocean waves often triggered by an underwater earthquake. Stress: a force that squeezes rocks together, stretches or pulls them apart or pushes them in different directions Focus: the point where part of the crust breaks loose and moves suddenly, causing an earthquake Vibrations: back and forth motions that carry energy from one place to another Epicenter: the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake, often where the most damage from an earthquake occurs

42 Learning Set 3.2 cont’d Body waves: seismic waves that travel through earth. Surface waves: seismic waves that travel along the surface of the earth. P-waves (primary): longitudinal seismic waves that can travel through solids, liquids, or gases, and are the fastest type of seismic waves. S-waves (secondary): transverse seismic waves that can travel only through solids and are slower than P waves.

43 Warm up 1.30 Explain how the energy of an earthquake travels. Be very specific with the vocabulary we have learned.

44 Warm Up 2.2 What is the difference between P-waves & S-waves? How do they travel? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.

45 Longitudinal wave: a type of wave that travels through Earth in a push-pull pattern.
Transverse wave: a type of wave in which particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

46 How do scientists collect and evaluate data from earthquakes?
Read pages and fill in and answer the reading guide.

47 Reading Guide Finish 3.3 Reading Guide from pages You will be called up to have your notebook checked. Work quietly.

48 Warm up 3.19 & 3.20 Give one example of something that would be in each of the earth’s systems. Describe how they all interact with one another. Must answer in complete sentences!

49 Warm up 2.3 Take five minutes to QUIETLY study your material for the quiz.

50 Warm Up 2.4 Why can’t you judge an earthquake based upon it’s intensity? When you are done with your warm up read pages in your PBIS book quietly.

51 Convection lab You will be placed in four groups to do the convection lab. While doing the lab make sure to consider these questions…. How is this like earth’s mantle? What are the driving forces behind the convection current?

52 Convection Lab…Answer the following questions…
Draw what happened in the convection lab in your notebook. What do you think is causing the warm water to move as it did in the simulation? Water is a liquid that flows easily, but Earth’s mantle is a solid that behaves like a viscous, or very thick liquid. How do you think Earth’s mantle might flow differently than the water? What strengths does this model have for studying the movement of materials in Earth? What are its weaknesses?

53 2.5 Warm Up How is a pot of boiling water similar to earth’s mantle? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.

54 Vocabulary Convection current: the cycle of movement when warm, less-dense fluids rise and cool and more dense fluids sink due to differences in temperature Plume: a hot, rising, column of mantle material. Mid-ocean ridge: a continuous range through the oceans, which is subject to earthquakes Lava: fluid rock that comes from a volcano; becomes solid by cooling

55 Vocabulary cont’d Ocean-floor spreading: a process by which new ocean floor is created in the area where two plates are moving apart. Ridge push: the push of older crust away from a plate boundary Slab pull: the movement of older crust down toward the center of earth.

56 Read 4.3 Read Pages with your partner. On page 163 answer the ‘Stop and Think’ questions Skip number two. Once you have answered read and answered the questions you can begin working on Mantle’s story. 1. How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material? 3. Draw a cross section of Earth, showing the core, mantle, and crust. Draw arrows to represent a convection current in Earth’s mantle.

57 Read 4.3 When you are done continue reading section 4.3 on pages Answer the reflect questions 1-4 on page 166 in your notebook.

58 Warm up 2.6 How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.

59 Warm Up 2.9 Describe the process of ocean-floor spreading. How does this relate to the convection current? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.

60 Volcano Vocabulary Volcano – Any place in Earth’s crust where mantle material and other substances reach the surface OR an Earth structure formed by the accumulation of lava and other volcanic materials. Volcano fields – clusters of volcanoes Active volcano – currently erupting or expecting to erupt Dormant volcano – currently not erupting, erupted in past, likely to erupt again Extinct volcano – not active and not likely to erupt

61 Warm up 2.10 What is the difference between an active, dormant and extinct volcano. Describe in 2-3 complete sentences.

62 Cinder Volcanoes A cone-shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano.

63 Shield Volcano A gently-sloping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area.

64 Stratovolcano A steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava.

65 Volcanoes Cinder– a cone shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano Shield – a gently- slopping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area Stratovolcano – a steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava

66 Parts of a volcano

67 /search?Ntt=stratovolcanoes
Volcano Video /search?Ntt=stratovolcanoes

68 5.3 Read Read pages Answer the ‘Stop and Think’ Questions on pages 191, 192, 194, & 197. This ten questions in all. Each question is worth ten points. You must have this completed by the end of the class. All questions must be answered in COMPLETE sentences.

69 Warm up 2.11 Compare and contrast the three different types of volcanoes that we discussed last class. Answer in complete sentences.

70 Warm Up 2.12 How do volcanoes impact their surrounding areas? What type of impact does it have on the environment?

71 Warm Up 2.19 When it is below freezing outside, what causes our house’s water pipes to freeze? Explain why this happens.

72 Warm Up 2.20 How do you think the convection current shapes our own region in North Carolina? What are some examples?

73 Warm Up 2.23 What are some of the negatives about living in California? Be specific about geologic activity.

74 Warm Up: 2.24 Vocabulary Igneous Rock: a rock that has solidified from molten or partly molten materials (magma) Sediment: particles of solid material that have moved from their place of origin by wind, moving water, or glacier ice and deposited on a surface Sedimentary rock: rock formed from small particles of rock or pieces of once-living things.

75 Warm Up 2.25 Fossils: the remains or traces of once living things
Metamorphic rock: rock formed by heat and pressure from another kind of rock. Rock cycle: the way in which rocks are continuously recycled over time

76 Warm Up 2.27 Please provide an example of each of these earth’s spheres….Geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

77 Warm Up 3.2 Metamorphic rock can become sedimentary rock. Why do you think this is possible? Answer in complete sentences.

78 Open Book Quiz You will work independently on an open book quiz covering chapters 5 & 6 in our Earth book. 5.3 – Pages 6.2 – Pages

79 Warm Up 3.3 What is the difference between minerals and rocks? Explain in complete sentences.

80 Warm Up 3.4 What causes a rock to go through a physical change and become another type of rock? Give a specific example.

81 Warm Up 3.5 How is the Rock Cycle an ever changing cycle? Be specific and give details.


83 The Rock Cycle Rock Type How Its Formed Examples Sedimentary
Small particles worn away, deposited, and cemented together Sandstone Conglomerate Igneous Formed from the cooling of molten magma Basalt Pumice Obsidian Metamorphic Formed from heat and pressure from another kind of rock Marble (parent rock = limestone) Slate (parent rock = shale)

84 Sedimentary Rock Conglomerate Sandstone

85 Igneous Rock Basalt Pumice Obsidian

86 Metamorphic Rocks Marble (parent rock = limestone)
Slate (Parent rock = shale)

87 nMDNyE8
The Rock Cycle Video nMDNyE8

88 Warm Up 3.6 Get out your 3.2 Study Guide Worksheet. Finish working on it for warm up. Pages A If you finished working on it read quietly.

89 Soil Loose covering of rock particles and organic matter at Earth’s surface. Layered into horizons.

90 Threats to Soil Quality
Sealing (permanent coverings such as roads and buildings) Compaction (pushing rock particles closer together). Causes pore size to decrease. Erosion (by wind and water) Contamination Change in biodiversity Waste to land contamination (fertililizers)

91 Soil vocabulary Soil horizon- a soil layer with physical and chemical properties that differ from those of soil layers above or below it. Soil profile- the soil horizons in a specific location; a cross section of soil layers that displays all soil horizons. Soil – mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support plant life

92 Soil vocabulary continued
Sand – loose granular substance; Clay – a stiff, sticky fine grained earth; forms an impermeable layer in the soil Loam –a fertile soil of clay and sand containing humus Humus- the decayed organic matter in soil

93 Soil Video CurrentPage=1&No=20&N=0&Ne=&Ntt=soil&Ns=&Nr=&browseFilter=&indexVer sion=&Ntk=

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