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Native Texans NYOS 4 th Grade. Primary vs. Secondary Sources What do you think a primary source is? A primary source is an original object or document.

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Presentation on theme: "Native Texans NYOS 4 th Grade. Primary vs. Secondary Sources What do you think a primary source is? A primary source is an original object or document."— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Texans NYOS 4 th Grade

2 Primary vs. Secondary Sources What do you think a primary source is? A primary source is an original object or document -- the raw material or first-hand information. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, and art objects.

3 Primary vs. Secondary Sources Now that you know what a primary source is, what do you think a secondary source is? A secondary source is something written about a primary source. Secondary sources include comments on, interpretations of, or discussions about the original material. You can think of secondary sources as second-hand information. If I tell you something, I am the primary source. If you tell someone else what I told you, you are the secondary source. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or popular magazines, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research.


5 Now it is your turn Is an encyclopedia a primary or secondary source?

6 Now it is your turn What about Lewis and Clark’s notebook from their explorations?

7 Now it is your turn Martin Luther King biography Martin Luther King Photograph

8 Now you are going to use a primary source to answer some questions.

9 Who could have made this? When do you think it was created? Where do you think it was made? Why would someone make this? What do you think it is?

10 North American buckskin map From North America, AD 1774-5 This map shows a vast drainage basin at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

11 First People Scientific Origins Discovery Streaming video “The Ancient World” – Segment 1- The Great Migration

12 People of the Coastal Plains The Caddo The Karankawa

13 Caddo Video Student made virtual field trip – eature=related eature=related

14 Caddo

15 Caddo Native Americans The Caddo were farmers who lived in East Texas. There were two main groups of the Caddo in Texas.

16 Caddo Region The Caddo lived in east Texas in the piney forests. (Piney Woods) This is a good climate for farming. There are many springs, creeks, streams and several large rivers in this area.

17 Caddo Trade Bows and arrows were the favorite weapon for hunting and for war. The bois de arc only grows in this region, so the Caddo had all the bois de arc wood. They made bows to trade with other Indian tribes

18 Caddo Trade The women made pottery to use and for trade. The Caddo also traded some of their crops for things they needed.

19 Caddo Shelter The Caddo lived in tall cone shaped grass huts. To build a hut, they made a wood frame and covered it with cut cane and long grasses.

20 Caddo Shelter These huts were nicely furnished inside with furniture and were quite comfortable. The inside of the huts had woven grass and split cane mats on the floors. These same mats were hung up as partitions inside the hut. Often several families would live in one hut.

21 Caddo Shelter The summer house had no sides on it, only a roof. The floor was raised up off the ground and was made of woven cane or split wood. This helped keep it cooler.

22 Caddo Food They were farmers. They planted crops in large clearings in the woods. They raised corn, beans and squash. They also hunted the deer, turkey, rabbits, squirrels and other animals in the pine woods around them.

23 Caddo Food The women would gather wild plant food like acorns, black berries, persimmons, roots and many other plants and fruits. But, farming corn, beans, and squash provided the main source of food.

24 Caddo Tools Because they lived in the woods they used wood for many things. To cut down trees they used stone axes.

25 Caddo Clothing Caddo Indian men wore breechcloths, sometimes with leather leggings to protect their legs. Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of woven fiber and deerskin. Both genders wore earrings and moccasins. Caddo men did not usually wear shirts, but in cold weather, both men and women wore buffalo robes. In colonial times, the Caddos adapted European costume such as cloth jackets and calico dresses. Here is a webpage with pictures of Caddo ribbon shirts, and here are some photographs and links about Indian clothes in general. breechclothsmoccasinsCaddo ribbon shirtsIndian clothes

26 Caddo Clothing The Caddos didn't wear long headdresses like the Sioux. Caddo men usually cut their hair in the Mohawk style or shaved their heads except for a scalplock (one long lock of hair on top of their heads.) Sometimes warriors would make this hairstyle more impressive with a colorful porcupine roach. Caddo Indian women usually wore their long hair in a bun. For special occasions, Caddo women fastened their buns with beaded hair ornaments and long trailing ribbons like this. The Caddos also wore tribal tattoos, and women painted their faces and bodies bright colors for special occasions. Today, some Caddo people still wear moccasins or a ribbon shirt, but they wear modern clothes like jeans instead of breechcloths... and they only wear roaches in their hair on special occasions like a dance.SiouxMohawkporcupine roachthistribal tattoos

27 Caddo Arts The Caddos were most famous for their pottery. Caddo artists made elaborately decorated pots and bottles in many different styles. Here is a website of Caddo pottery photographs for you to look at, and another site on the history of Mississipian Indian pottery and other artifacts. Traditional Caddo art forms also include basketry and woodcarving.potteryCaddo pottery photographsMississipian Indian pottery and other artifacts basketrywoodcarving

28 Cool Facts- Caddo Weapons Caddo hunters primarily used bows and arrows. Caddo fishermen caught fish and shellfish in basket traps. Caddo warriors fired their bows or fought with lances or tomahawks. Farmers used tools such as hoes and spades, which they made from wood, carved bone, and mussel shells. The Caddos also made axes with heavy stone heads for chopping wood. Caddo Tomahawk

29 Cool Facts- Caddo Transportation The Caddos knew how to make dugout canoes from hollowed-out logs, but usually they preferred to travel by land. There were no horses in North America until colonists brought them over from Europe, so the Caddos used dogs to help them carry their belongings. Today, of course, Caddo people also use cars... and non-native people also use canoes.

30 More Caddo Information undamentals/life.html undamentals/life.html Textbook on page 92

31 The Karankawas

32 Information starts on page 95 of textbook

33 Nomadic Hunt and gather small animals and fish Lived in small huts or wigwams During the winter, the Karankawas would set up camps around the coastal bays. They subsisted on fish, shellfish and turtles. In warmer months, the tribes would move inland to hunt deer and bison and to gather berries, nuts and roots.

34 Karankawa men were expert hunters and fisherman. The Karankawas crafted pottery, baskets and weapons, including the long bow. Traded goods they had for what other tribes made. Karankawa economic activities

35 The Karankawa government was divided into two categories: civil chiefs and war chiefs. Civil chiefs were appointed by those in the tribe. These men were responsible for keeping everything in order and moving the tribe forward when it came time for the nomads to move onto a new area. The war chief only took over when the Karankawa went into battle or fought with another group of people. This chief was appointed by being the first-born male of the eldest in the tribe.

36 People of the Central and High Plains The Tonkawas The Lipan Apache The Comanche

37 Lipan Apache Textbook starting on page 101

38 People of the Mountains and Basins The Pueblo The Jumanos The Cochos The Tiguas

39 The Jumanos Textbook starting on page 106

40 Have fun making your artifact!

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