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Agenda Bell ringer Review Maritime Revolution Transformations in Europe Closure.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Bell ringer Review Maritime Revolution Transformations in Europe Closure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda Bell ringer Review Maritime Revolution Transformations in Europe Closure

2 Review What were the effects of the colonial reforms and wars among imperial powers that dominated the Americas during the 18 th century?

3 Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450 – 1750)

4 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC SYSTEM AND AFRICA ( )

5 Objectives Describe the importance of sugar production to the European colonies of the West Indies and to the expansion of African slave trade.

6 Essential Questions What was the importance of sugar production to the European colonies of the West Indies and to the expansion of African slave trade?

7 Target: Plantations in the West Indies Colonization before 1650 – Spanish settlers – sugar-cane cultivation after – Tobacco (post-1600)

8 First tobacco colonies – diseases, hurricanes, native and Spanish attacks, shortages of supply and labor. France and England allowed chartered companies. – Provided passage for indentured servants. – Mid 1600s – Switch to sugar cane and African slaves in the Caribbean.

9 – Portuguese first developed sugar plantations with African slaves. Dutch West India Company control by Portugal reconquered Brazil by 1654.

10 Sugar and slaves – More sugar plantations in the West Indies = higher volume of African slave trade. – Less wealthy tobacco planters preferred Indentured servants. – Sugar cultivation = high land prices in West Indies.

11 Essential Questions What was the importance of sugar production to the European colonies of the West Indies and to the expansion of African slave trade?

12 Review What was the importance of sugar production to the European colonies of the West Indies and to the expansion of African slave trade?

13 Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450 – 1750)

14 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC SYSTEM AND AFRICA( )

15 Objectives Evaluate the effect that sugar plantations had on the natural environment and on living conditions.

16 Essential Questions What effect did sugar plantations have on the natural environment and on living conditions?

17 Target: Plantation Life in the 18 th Century Technology and environment – Complex and expensive process to produce sugar cane. – High profits led planters to exploit nature. – New animals and plants crowded out indigenous species.

18 Fig. 19-CO, p. 504

19 Slaves’ lives – Most islands of the West Indies – 90% or more of the inhabitants. 2-3% house servants, 70% worked the fields. – Plantocracy held power. – Small group of estate managers, government officials, artisans, small farmers.

20 – Imported twice as many males as females. – Fear. – No schooling. – Little time for family. Poor nutrition and overwork lowered fertility.

21 p. 513

22 – Disease killed many Seasoning – period of adjustment, average of 1/3 died. High mortality increased volume of slave trade. – Elements of African culture in the West Indies.

23 – Harsh conditions in West Indies made some seek freedom. Planters tried to curtail African cultural traditions.

24 Free whites and free blacks – French colony of San Domingue Grands blancs (“great whites”) Petits blancs (“little whites”) Free blacks – many owned property, some owned slaves

25 – Manumission more common in Brazil, Spanish, and French colonies – Escaped slaves were part of the free black population.

26 Essential Questions What effect did sugar plantations have on the natural environment and on living conditions?

27 Agenda

28 Review What were the effects of the colonial reforms and wars among imperial powers that dominated the Americas during the 18 th century?

29 Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450 – 1750)

30 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC SYSTEM AND AFRICA ( )

31 Objectives Describe the relationship between private investors and European governments in the development of the Atlantic economy.

32 Essential Questions What was the relationship between private investors and European governments in the development of the Atlantic economy?

33 Target: Creating the Atlantic Economy Capitalism and mercantilism – Success of 17 th and 18 th century Atlantic economy depended on private enterprise. – Growth of the Atlantic economy was one part of the development of modern capitalism – economic system of large financial institutions

34 – 17 th century – slow economic growth in Europe led many to seek profits in colonial products like sugar and tobacco. Banks, joint-stock corporations, insurance.

35 – Mercantilism – European states controlled trade and accumulated capital in the form of gold and silver. Chartered companies. High tariffs and restrictions excluded foreigners.

36 Map 19-1, p. 517

37 The Atlantic Circuit – Clockwise network of sea routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas. First leg: Europe to Africa (manufactured goods) Second leg: Africa to the Americas (slaves – Middle Passage) Third leg: the Americas to Europe (raw materials)

38 Map 19-2, p. 519

39 p. 518

40 – Not the only route. European ships to Indian Ocean and Asia, Asia to Africa and Americas. Triangular Trade –Americas to West Africa, Africa to the West Indies, West Indies to New England. Brazil and Angola

41 – Europe = principal market for American plantation products. – African slave trade Flow of sugar to Europe depended on the flow of slaves from Africa. Chartered companies.

42 Essential Questions What was the relationship between private investors and European governments in the development of the Atlantic economy?

43 Agenda

44 Review What was the relationship between private investors and European governments in the development of the Atlantic economy?

45 Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450 – 1750)

46 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC SYSTEM AND AFRICA ( )

47 Objectives Describe how sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compared with its contacts with the Islamic world.

48 Essential Questions How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compare with its contacts with the Islamic world?

49 Target: Africa, the Atlantic, and Islam The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast – African kings and merchants sold slaves and goods. – Textiles, hardware, and guns in high demand. – Europeans forced to observe African trading customs. – Most common sources of slaves – prisoners of war.

50 The Bight of Biafra and Angola – Bight of Biafra. Regional merchants sold people. Giant fairs. – Angola – greatest source of slaves. Markets. Effect of droughts.

51 – Atlantic trade among African regions expanded and prospered because European merchants and African elites benefitted. Foreign goods made Africans more wealthy and powerful.

52 Map 19-3, p. 521

53 Essential Questions How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compare with its contacts with the Islamic world?

54 Agenda

55 Review What was the relationship between private investors and European governments in the development of the Atlantic economy?

56 Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450 – 1750)

57 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC SYSTEM AND AFRICA ( )

58 Objectives Describe how sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compared with its contacts with the Islamic world.

59 Essential Questions How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compare with its contacts with the Islamic world?

60 Target: Africa’s European and Islamic Contacts North Africa – part of the Islamic world. Sub-Sahara – gradually learned of Muslim beliefs from traders. 16 th century – Ottoman Empire annexed most of North Africa.

61 Until 1590, the Sahara remained an effective barrier against invasion from northern states.

62 Few statistics of the slave trade to the Islamic north. – : 850,000 to Muslim North Africa. Most in the Islamic world were soldiers or servants. Enslavement of “pagans.” Islam forbade enslavement of Muslims. Limited European cultural influence.

63 European trade was larger. – : 8 million v. 2 million Effects on Africa’s population – Sub-Sahara still large. – Localities suffered high losses. – Ability to recover from losses was related to the number of women who were shipped away.

64 – Sub-Saharan economies Limited volume of manufactured imports did not overwhelm African products. – Profits mostly went to European merchants and ship owners. – European manufacturers profited as well.

65 Essential Questions How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding contacts in the Atlantic compare with its contacts with the Islamic world?


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