3Plantations in the West Indies Colonization Before 1650 Spanish settlers introduced sugar-cane cultivation into the West Indies shortly after 1500French and English developed colonies based on tobacco cultivationWest Indian economies moved from tobacco to sugar productionPortuguese introduced sugar-cane cultivation to BrazilDutch West India Company, took control of 1,000 miles of sugar-producing Brazilian coastDutch improved efficiency of Brazilian sugar industry and brought slaves to Brazil and the West Indies
4Sugar & Slaves ’s)colonies transitioned from tobacco to sugar economydemand for labor caused increase in volume of Atlantic slave tradeShift from European indentured servants to enslaved African labor was caused by:Europeans unwilling to indenture themselves to the West Indieslife expectancy of enslaved longer than the term of indenturerise in sugar prices allowed planters to invest in slaves
9Technology and Environment Sugar plantations grew sugar cane and processed it into sugar crystals, molasses, rumGrowing/harvesting cane was simplemachinery was complicated/expensiveeconomies of scalecaused soil exhaustion/deforestationled to invasive speciesthe Arawak & Carib people became extinct
10Slaves LivesWest Indian society consisted of a wealthy land-owning plantocracy, their many slaves, and a few people in betweenGang labor vs. task laborRewards and punishments, very little rest and relaxation, no education, and little time or opportunity for family lifeDisease, harsh working conditions, and dangerous mill machinery all contributed to the short life expectancyHigh mortality rate = majority of slaves on West Indian plantations were born in AfricaSlaves ran away; occasionally staged violent revoltsRebellions were curtailed by suppressing African cultural traditions, religions, and languages
13Free Whites & Free Blacks Three groups of free people:wealthy “great whites”less-well-off, “little whites”free blacksOnly wealthy could afford land, machinery, slaves needed for sugar plantationBecame politically influential,Controlled colonial assembliesgained seats in ParliamentManumission produced a significant free black populationSelf purchaseRunaway slaves (maroons)
14Cudjoe, Leader of the Jamaican Maroons After decades of successful resistance to the British, a peace treaty was negotiated that recognized the freedom of his runaway followers. The British also granted land and effective self-government to the maroons in exchange for ending raids on plantations and the promise to return future runaways.
15Capitalism and Mercantilism Royal monopolies inefficient & expensiveBanks, joint-stock companies, stock exchanges, insurance emergedMercantilism promoted private investment in overseas trade and accumulation of capital in the form of precious metalsChartered companies; Dutch West India Company, French Royal African Company used military force to pursue commercial dominanceAtlantic became the major trading area for the British, French, & Portuguese in the eighteenth century
16The Atlantic CircuitMaritime exchanges included consumer products, slave labor, precious metals, & other goodsclockwise network of trade routes going from Europe to Africa, from Africa to the plantation colonies of the Americas (the Middle Passage), and then from the colonies to EuropeCould make profit on each legSupplemented by other trade routes: Europe to the Indian Ocean; Europe to the West Indies; New England to the West Indies; and the “Triangular Trade” among New England, Africa, and the West Indies.
17The Atlantic EconomyBy 1700 the volume of maritime exchanges among the Atlantic continents began to rival the trade of the Indian Ocean basinNotice the trade in consumer products, slave labor, precious metals, and other goodsA silver trade to East Asia laid the basis for a Pacific Ocean economy
18The African Slave Trade Before discovery of America, Greek, Russian, Bulgarian, Armenian, and then black slaves worked the plantations of southern Italy, Sicily, Portugal, & Mediterranean, Spainmodels for American slaverybecame highly specializedrun by chartered companies (in the 17thcentury) and then private traders (in the 18th century)Disease, maltreatment, suicide, and psychological depressionDisease killed Europeans on slave ships at about same rate as it killed slavesAtlantic slave trade cheapened life in Africa as well as in the Americas
19Model of the English vessel Brookes shows the specially built section of the hold where enslaved Africans were packed together during the Middle Passage.
20African Slave TradeSome kings based their power on slave raiding and trade with EuropeansThe Dahomean royal family, and European observers, await the sacrifice of slaves about to be thrown from the heights in honor of the king. The umbrella is a symbol of monarchy in parts of West Africa.
21Queen Njiga (Nzinga) of Ndongo 1624-1629 most important female political figure in the history of early modern AngolaUsed military to enforce expansionist policiesparticipated fully in the slave tradefiercely resisted Portuguese attempts to control that tradeHere she sits enthroned, wearing her crown (the cross a sign of her Christian baptism) and bracelets, giving an order. She has become a symbol of African resistance to colonial rule.
22City of Luanda, 1575 center of the huge slave trade to Brazil Droughts forced refugees to flee to kingdoms in better-watered areaskings traded male refugees to slave dealerspartnership between European traders and African elitesOffices and warehouses line the streets, and slaves are dragged to the ships for transportation to America. kidnapping was the main source of people to sell into slavery.
23African and European Partnerships Portuguese present before the Manikongoinitially fostered good relationship with the Kingdom of KongoCivil War within Kongo led to many enslavement by Portuguese and other Europeans
24Middle Passage & Slave Ships Europe/Africa trade grew after 1650Trade in other goods continued; did not lead to any significant European colonization of AfricaAfrican merchants exploited the demand for slaves:raised the priceForced Europeans to observe African trading customsCompetition prevented unified bargaining positionExchange of slaves for firearms contributed to state formation in the Gold and Slave Coasts
25Africa and Islamic Slave Trade Between , Europeans built a growing trade with Africa but did not acquire territoryOnly significant colonies were on islands; Portuguese in Angola; Dutch Cape Colony, which was tied to the Indian Ocean trade rather than to the Atlantic trade.Muslim territorial dominance was significantTrans-Saharan slave trade was smaller in volume than the Atlantic slave tradeSupplied slaves for the personal slave army of the Moroccan rulers and for sugar plantation labor, servants, and artisansMost slaves were women destined to be concubines or servants and children, including eunuchs, meant for service as harem guards
28Spread of Islam in Africa Muslim cultural influences south of the Sahara much stronger than European cultural influencesIslam & Arabic spread more rapidly than Christianity & English, which were largely confined to the coastal trading centersEuropean & Islamic slave trade did not have a significant effect on the overall population of Africaacute effect on certain areas
29Impact on African States and Trade Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, Benin, Lunda, Buganda, and Ethiopia, remained powerful in this eraWest African coastal societies increasingly drawn into world tradeEast African coastal cities remained tied to Indian Ocean tradeVolume of trade goods imported into sub-Saharan Africa did not have significant effect on livelihood of traditional African artisansBoth African & European merchants benefited, but Europeans saw greater benefit because they directed it
30West African States and Trade 1500-1800 Atlantic & trans-Saharan trade brought new goods & promoted rise of powerful states and trading communitiesMoroccan invasion of Songhai and Portuguese colonization of the Angolan ports of Luanda and Benguela showed the political dangers of such relations