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FST 504: TECHNOLOGY OF MISCELLANEOUS FOOD COMMODITY 3 Units Section 2 Dr Mrs J.M. Babajide Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture,

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Presentation on theme: "FST 504: TECHNOLOGY OF MISCELLANEOUS FOOD COMMODITY 3 Units Section 2 Dr Mrs J.M. Babajide Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture,"— Presentation transcript:

1 FST 504: TECHNOLOGY OF MISCELLANEOUS FOOD COMMODITY 3 Units Section 2 Dr Mrs J.M. Babajide Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

2 Course requirements: CAT: 30% (Test 20% & assignment 10%) Exam: 70% 70% Class attendance compulsory

3 SUGAR AND CONFECTIONERY INTRODUCTION Definition of sugar (sucrose) - form of carbohydrate suitable as a sweetener Major source of sugar e.g cane and beet World production of sugar - The world’s highest producer of sugar produce about 90 million tones/year, 60% sugar cane and 40% from sugar beet. Sugar as an important confectionery ingredient - basic ingredient for classical sugar confectionery

4 Production of raw sugar sugar cane shredding Squeezing under hydrolytic pressure raw sucrose sugar Sugar cane Sugar beet washing slicing diffusing sucrose liquor Sugar Beet At this stage the liquor contain 13 – 14% sucrose.

5 Purification/Refinery of raw sugar Raw sugar Mixing (with syrup obtained from the latter stages) c oncentrating ( under vacuum) Centrifuging ( at high speed of 1,200 rpm or more) Sugar crystals Washing (with hot water thus causing re-dissolution of sugar) Adding Lime milk /carbonation Filtering (under pressure) Decolourising (with active carbon) Concentration to super-saturation level (using evaporator) Refined sugar (80% solid) Drying Dried Sugar crystals

6 White Sugar (%) Brown Sugar (%) Purity (Sucrose) Moisture Reducing Sugar (as in invert sugar) Ash Impurities Typical analyses of cane or beet sugar

7 TemperatureSolubility oCoC oFoF% 1.Solubility SH 2.Specific heat (SH) (67% solution) Equilibrium relative humidity60% 4.Boiling point 67% solution boils at 105 o C (225 o F) 5.Optical rotation+66.5 o 6. Specific gravity (SG) for 67.1% solution “ Temp SG for 74% solution “ Bulk density lb/ft 3 (varying according to package) Physical properties of sucrose

8 Traditional Degree of sugar boilings Name (Consistency) ObservationApprox. temp Thread (gloss) Thin strands 103 o C Large Thread (large gloss) Stronger strand 104 o C Small pearl form small droplets 105 o C Large pearl form large droplets106 o C Blow (scuffle) bubbles set on syrup 110 o C Feather form feathery hard strands 111 o C Small ball syrup form soft ball116 o C Large ball syrup form hard ball120 o C Large Crack form thin sheet129 o C Medium Crack form slightly brittle sheet132 o C Hard crack rapidly formed sheet143 o C Extra hard crack sheet shows signs of browning 168 o C Caramel brown brittle sheet180 o C

9 PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE SUGAR 1.Solubility of Sugar Saturation concentration of sugar:- (at room temperature a part of H 2 O will dissolve 2 parts of sugar (67%) Factors that determine concentration of sugar:- temperature, rate of agitation, degree of under saturation and inversely to the crystal size). Rate of dissolution of sugar:- For example, in preparing a saturated solution at room temperature, the last few % of sugar will dissolve very slowly except in the use of heat

10 Super-saturated sugar solution:- (a solution containing more sugar than the saturation level), when heated and allowed to cool to room temperature – a 74% solution may be obtained. Instability of super-saturated sugar:- any vibration or ingress of solid particles (which act as nuclei) may result in rapid crystallization of excess sugar.

11 Addition of mixtures of sugars (fructose, sobitol etc) can lead to higher dissolved solids e.g. the inclusion of invert sugar in the optimal ratio increases the solubility at 20 o C from 67.7% for sucrose alone to 75.1% for the mixture. The degree brix is the unit of measurement of concentration of sugar solution and the common instrument used is hydrometer having Baume scale (% of sucrose by wt.) e.g if 50g sugar is dissolved in 50g of H 2 O, it will be written as 50% w/w.

12 2. Bulkiness property of sugar It acts as a bulking agent (filler), a diluents and carrier of trace ingredients like colourants, flavours thereby improving their dispersion. Sugar crystals improve the particulate flow characteristics of mixture, an important feature in a highly mechanized food industry. Its particle size aids wetting and dispersion when H 2 O is added.

13 When mixed with fats, it enables the incorporation of air into the mixture which makes it important in generating the lightens of cake. It provides mouth feel in soft drinks at relatively low concentration while at high concentration, it gives the characteristics e.g. in boiled sweets.

14 3. Relative Humidity of sugar Sucrose sugar can tolerate to a wide range of humidity. However, it does have its limitations in its tendency to cake or solidify in it’s storage container. Thus, sugar remains free flowing under normal European climatic conditions. When the relative humidity drops below 70%, the syrup form crystals. When the R.H is over 70%, it gives rise to conditions which encourage mould growth during storage.

15 ABCDE Brittle, crisp, Crunchy, flaky chewy, fluffy, hard, light, short, Soft, spongy, Springy, stiff, Tender, tough chalky, coarse, crystalline, lumpy, powdery, rough, sandy,, smooth Crumbly, dough, fibrous, mushy, pasty, spongy, Stringy greasy, dry moist, oily sticky, tacky tready, waxy, wetty, 4. Sugar Confectionery Texture

16 Texture variation can be achieved for confections by one or more of the following procedures: vary the moisture content vary the content type and strength of gelling agent vary the sucrose-glucose syrup ratio vary the sucrose-invert sugar solid ratio vary the pH alter the process temperature conditions vary the milk protein content seed the batch with fondant or icing sugar change the required level of total sugars alter processing conditions to vary the particle size alter the incorporated air content

17 FORMS/TYPES OF SUCROSE SUGAR 1.Granulated mineral water sugar 2.Granulated sugar 3.Industrial granulated 4.Cube sugar 5.Nibs 6.Caster 7.Icing sugar 8.Liquid sugar 9.Brown sugar 10.Mollases 11.Microcrystalline sugar

18 GLUCOSE SYRUP Glucose syrup - key ingredient in the confectionery industry. It is a refined concentrate aqueous solution of D(+)-1- glucose, maltose and other polymers of D-glucose obtained by controlled partial hydrolysis of edible starch. According to Codex Alimetarius, Glucose syrup can be defined as a purified concentration of aqueous solution of nutritive saccharides obtained from starch. Can be obtained from starchy foods such as corn, cassava, potato etc. The industrial production of glucose syrup consists of 2 basic processes: 1.Starch hydrolysis 2.Refining of the hydrolysate

19 In acid hydrolysis, dextrose equivalent (degree of hydrolysis) of 30-35DE could be obtained which is still of higher quality required by the food and confectionery industry. DE is the degree of hydrolysis of starch that takes place and it is the total reducing power i.e. in the acid hydrolysis of glucose syrup, we have the composition of dextrose, maltose, malto- triose, malto-tetrose, malto-pentose, malto- hexose and higher sugars in various percentages making a total of 100% for each DE, as shown below:

20 Destrose Equivalent of sugars Type Low Low Regular Intermediate High High Maltose DE 26 DE 38 DE 42 DE 55 DE % % % % % % Monosacchari de-dextrose Disaccharide -maltose Trisaccharides Tetra-saccharides Penta-ssacharides Hexo-saccharide Hepta-saccharides High sugars

21 Function of Glucose syrup in confectionery Type of Syrup Property/functional useLow DE High DE Body agent * * Browning reaction * Cohesiveness * Colour stabilization * Crystallisate control * * Emulsion stabilizer * Fermentability * Flavour enhancement * Flavour transfer medium* Foam stabilizer ** Freezing point depression* Humenctancy * * Hygroscopicity* Increased vapour pressure * Nutritive value ** Osmotic pressure ** Preservation* Prevention of coarse ice crystals * Prevention of sucrose crystallisate * Sheen power * * Solubility effect ** Sweetness* Thickening agent * Viscosity * Key: * type of syrup which have the function

22 BOILED SWEETS High boiled sweets are sugar products which are glossy in appearance. They can be considered as sugar liquids with very high viscosities. The finished product of boiled sweet is a super cooled liquid at ambient temperature with a solid content of 97 – 98%.

23 Although there is super saturation at the solid state with respect to sucrose, but because of the addition of glucose syrup, the formulation cannot crystallize. Other ingredients that can be added to boiled sweets are flavours, milk, fruits, chocolate, colours etc.

24 Production of High Boiled Sweets (HBS) There are 3 main production methods for HBS. They are Open pans Vacuum cookers Continuous cookers Each of this require different ratio of sugar to glucose syrup to give the best result. Sucrose: glucose Open pan 70:30 to 66.5:33.5 Vacuum cookers65:35 to 50:50 Continuous cookers 60:40 to 45:55

25 Approximate temperature of 156 O C is used during open pans. Vacuum cooking can be as low as 110 – 129 O C Precautions during HBS production : During cooling, prevent seeding (introduction of nuclei), this is because a grain of sugar drop into the mass will induce crystallisation Ensure good doctoring Stop stirring after attaining desired temperature

26 Product types of boiled sweets High boiled sweets manufacturing technology ranges from lollipops, candies, cones, medicated confectioneries, lettered rock, soft centred sweets, butter boilings, laminated (crackened or honey combed sweets to grained Edinburgh rock; marshmallow, Nougat, butterscotch, candy etc. Description of some Boiled sweets E.G Laminated or Honey comb sweet: This is a multilayered sweets with a crunchy texture made from many layers of cooked sugar having its centre filled with honey, nut paste, peanuts or other suitable fillings and finally wrapped in a thin envelope of high boiled sweets or sugar.

27 Rockets Candy cane lollipop Sweets Marshmallow

28 Gums, Jellies and Pastilles : Gums, Jellies and Pastilles constitute a large class of confectionery which can be manufactured with many variations. They are comparatively low boiled and contain about 20% moisture. Obtained by the use of various types of water binding gelling agents such as gum Arabic, starch, gelatin, agar and pectin.

29 Tablets and Lozenges: Tablets are made by compressing powdered or granulated ingredients in a confined space (die) until the particles bond together. They have very smooth surface and very little amount of moisture. Ingredients: Base material (sucrose), binders (gum) lubricants, starch (which swells upon contact with water and breaks up the tablet).

30 Lozenges are made from icing sugar, mixed with a binder, sheeted, but into shape and allowed to dry. When menthols/mints, vitamin C or other sore throat medicines are added, they are called medicated lozenges. In effervescent tablets, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate are included. Colours and flavours can also be added. Lozenges tend to have hard rough finishing while compressed tablets have smooth shiny surfaces.

31 Chewing and Bubble gum: Chewing gums are sticky candy to be chewed but not swallowed. It is composed of mixed natural (chicle- milky juice of the tropical sapodilla tree Archras zapota of Central America) and synthetic gums, resins together with various sugars and flavouring materials (such as mints). The difference between chewing gum and bubble gum is the ability of Bubble gum to make bubbles and stretch when blown. Bubble gum contains higher levels of polymers or rubbers. In sugar free or sugar less chewing gum, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol are used.

32 SOFT DRINK BEVERAGES What is Soft Drink Beverage? Soft drinks are non-alcoholic carbonated or non-carbonated beverages usually containing a sweetening agent, edible acids and natural or artificial flavours. Examples of Soft Drink Soft drinks include, cola beverages, fruit flavoured drinks, ginger ale, and root beer, also include soda water, seltzer water and tonic water.

33 History of Soft drink The first attempt to manufacture carbonated soft drinks were the result of a desire to duplicate the naturally effervescent, mineral-rich waters that flowed from the springs at the well-known European spas. John Pemberton invented caramel coloured syrup in 1886, when diluted and carbonated, this syrup is called coca-cola because it originally contained cocaine from coco leaf and rich in caffeine from the kolanut. This premiere flavoured soft drink was first patented in 1893.

34 In 1984, in response to the public demand for more healthful and less fattening foods as follows - 1. Soft drink manufactures began formulating with natural juices. 2. Vitamin enriched soft drinks 3. Sugar, caffeine, sodium -free soft drinks also became popular in the late twentieth century.

35 PRODUCTION OF SOFT DRINK Water treatment using sand filter /activated carbon / superchlorination and coagulation. Carbonation of treated water to give the characteristic effervescence (fizz and sparkle) soft drinks. During carbonation, Chilling is carried out

36 Finished soft drinks can be produced by diluting a mixture of non-carbonated water and flavoured sugar syrup with highly carbonated water then bottled or syrup is measured directly with bottles then filled with carbonated water injected under high pressure. The bottles are capped by another machine on the assembly line, inspected, then packed in cartons or cases ready for shipping.

37 Soft Drink Packaging Carbonated soft drinks are packaged for sale in variety of containers such as glass bottles, tin or aluminum cans and plastic bottles. Non-carbonated soft drinks can be packaged not only in bottles and cans but also in treated card board carton (tetrapak) since they are not under pressure.

38 Some special beverage categories are: 1.Non-carbonated soft drinks which are produced with some ingredients except CO 2 and techniques of carbonated soft drink but not protected from spoilage. They are usually pasteurized in bulk or continuous flash pasteurized either prior to filling or in the bottle. 2.Powdered soft drinks are made by blending flavouring materials such as dry acids, gums, sweeteners and artificial colour.

39 3.Nutraceutical beverages are drinks formulated with special functional ingredients that promote some aspect of health or reduce the risk of certain diseases.

40 SweetenerSweetness (Sucrose = 1) Taste Characteristics Uses Acesulfame-K (sunette) Rapid onset, persistent side-tastes at high concentrations Table sugar, dry beverage mixes, chewing gum Aspartame (Nutrasweet) 180Clean, similar to sucrose, no bitter after taste Table sugar, dry beverage, chewing gum, beverage confections, fruit spreads, toppings and fillings Saccharin Slow onset persistent after taste, bitter at high concentrations Soft drinks, juice, fruit drink, other beverage, table use sweeteners, processed fruits, chewing gum and confections, gelatins desserts, salad dressing, baked goods. Sucralose (Splenda) 600Can withstand high temperature without losing flavour Soft drinks, baked goods, chewing gum, table use sweetener or table sugar. Nutritive Sweeteners used in beverages

41 PROJECT Student will produce: Sugar syrup with various consistency High boiled sweets of various types


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