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Modern Movement 1910 – 1940s Functionalism Ornament as Crime

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Movement 1910 – 1940s Functionalism Ornament as Crime"— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Movement 1910 – 1940s Functionalism Ornament as Crime
Raumplan & Plan Libre whatever you design MUST work space planning issues

2 Adolph Loos, 1870-1933 “father of modern movement”
architect—loved theory used no historical references in his architecture—especially ornamentation

3 ornament does not serve a function
wrote of people that continue to ornament their bodies—backward & uncivilized likened those with tattoos to criminals

4 Steiner House, Adolph Loos, 1910-1920
backyard Steiner House, Adolph Loos, white box as a dwelling strong desire for symmetry

5 front façade curved line for interest very rigid

6 Moller House, Adolph Loos, 1910-1920
believes society has two faces—public face (exterior) & private face (interior) client did own interior

7 space should be freed from having rigid floors
wanted much more organicism gave you the shell to work with—you chose individual pieces

8 Raumplan—he freed the space vertically—different sense of complexity

9 Maison Domino, Le Corbusier, 1914
direct contrast with Le Corbusier’s—“Plan Libre”

10 Walter Gropius Director of Bauhaus School—1919 combines two schools of
thought—hand craft & fine art you design it, you make it, but you accept that it will be made by a machine & mass produced Walter Gropius

11 first year completely disregarded history in design
all incoming students went through a “ritual cleansing” first year consisted of a study of elements and principles of design

12 original location of the school—very conservative town
1923—exhibition; public didn’t like it thought that the Bauhaus was creating socialist freethinkers made them move

13 Bauhaus, Dessau, Gropius & Faculty, 1926
city (Dessau) funded the construction of the new building faculty designed building

14 still exists simplified approach to building little ornamentation very rational

15 designed to function in a specific manner
if it functioned well, it was beautiful used as few materials as possible

16 very linear & avant garde

17 Director's Office at Weimar Bauhaus, Gropius & collaborators, 1926
did use color only soft thing in the room is textile lighting by Laslo

18 Johannes Itten, 1916 two faculty members per studio
one to explain production & one to explain design Itten believed his job was to reach into each student and unleash inner creativity Gropius wasn’t happy with this Johannes Itten, 1916

19 Die Begegnung, Johannes Itten, 1916
loved expressive and manipulative aspects of color Die Begegnung, Johannes Itten, 1916

20 Laslo Moholy-Nagly more of an industrial designer—about production
form is the expression

21 Light Display: Black- White - Grey, Moholy-Nagy

22 Marcel Breuer (Broyer)
taught furniture making used materials efficiently and in new ways

23 sling seat—fabric held in tension
step in the direction of trying to see function of chair cantilevering becomes popular

24 Cesca Chair Breuer, 1926 inspired by a bicycle
sitting only on two legs—entirely cantilevered

25 meant for a middle class market

26 Wassily Chair, 1927 named after his friend—Wassily Kandinsky
Tubular Steel furniture by Marcel Breuer, , Bauhaus Wassily Chair Wassily Chair, 1927 named after his friend—Wassily Kandinsky some people argue it uses more material than necessary

27 Gunta Stolzl weaving workshop director—began on a temporary basis
women could only go into weaving would sell students designs to industry for money for school women in weaving were supporting entire school eventually

28 did wall hangings, rugs, bedspreads, etc…
only soft surface in entire space—humanized interior 1926

29 Wallhanging, Stolzl, 1926

30 Student dorm room with Stolzl’s bedspread, Pellerhaus, 1926

31 Lily Reich heads up weaving workshop in the 30s—when Mies van der Rohe becomes the director called herself an “inner architect”

32 Textiles from the Bauhaus Weaving Workshop

33 Interiors by Lily Reich, Berlin Expositions of 1931, Bauhaus, 1934
Berlin exposition vignette—uses textiles to make space more livable

34 Interiors by Lily Reich, Berlin Expositions of 1931, Bauhaus, 1934
manipulated textiles so that room feels soft—uses tubular steel like Breuer—chair reference to Mies

35 Mies van der Rohe 1886-1969 “Architecture is the real battleground of the spirit.”
wants to take Bauhaus to its next step—focusing more on aesthetics

36 Tubular Steel Cantilever Chair, Mies & Lily Reich, 1926
MR2 tubular steel fabric in tension supports padding injected lead into back stretcher to hold it down—in order to keep more elegant line of curved legs

37 perhaps the most famous of all work
German Pavilion, Barcelona, Spain, World's Fair, 1929; w/ Barcelona furniture perhaps the most famous of all work

38 based off of Corbusier’s “plan libre”
all walls are non-load bearing—do not articulate and close off space

39 concrete ceiling & slab floors

40 limited structure

41 free flow of space—walls are accenting depth of space
rug/textile helps to identify space & function can have glass walls now—are not supporting anything

42 browns & oranges brilliant blue/ gray



45 collection of different types of marble in structure

46 Barcelona Chair, Spain, Mies, 1929
centers all weight on one point—had to thicken joint throne for king & queen of Spain’s visit to pavilion leather and strap steel with fabric & tension webbing

47 Tugendhat (family) House, Mies, Brno (city), Czechoslovakia, 1928-1930
residential—façade; simple white boxes strong horizontal quality—flat roof unornamented generally unpretentious

48 glass curtain wall can roll down into basement walls
looks to be one story—actually two— top floor servants; ground floor family

49 Corbusier’s idea of structure used—columns or “pilotes”
only thing holding up structure

50 frames an extraordinary view

51 front door hard to find—kind of like FLW

52 “wallpaper” is nature—curtains play vital role in climate control
textile defines space

53 chrome plated columns distinguishes Mies work from Corbusier
curtains being used as temporary walls textiles & glass used as dividers instead of walls

54 chrome plated columns distinguishes Mies work from Corbusier

55 Tugendhat chair fabric & tension webbing tufted leather
still cantilevered, but with “S” shape curve again used strap steel

56 Identifying features?

57 dining room articulated by curved wall—
built-in marble side board seems to be floating

58 wood grain of wall creates distinct patterns
view brings color and pattern to space

59 Brno Chair named after location of house emphasizes cantilever
dropped seat not fabric & tension strap steel

60 Brno Chair tubular steel version

61 STRAP STEEL VERSION more elegant heavier more expensive TUBULAR STEEL VERSION easier to move less expensive

62 his interpretation of modern movement most clear—published
“Vers un Architecture” made five points: plan libre—eliminate load bearing walls so it can be open to anything—furniture created space definition—furniture becomes most important skeletal steel frame should show—columns/pilotes lift structure off ground away from “dampness” creates abstraction of nature on roof to balance footprint below uninterrupted strip/ribbon windows due to less structure Le Corbusier

63 Maison Domino, Le Corbusier, 1914

64 demonstrating his five points with model of Villa Savoye

65 real marker that modernist movement is catching on

66 Grand Comfort Lounge Chair (LC2), Le Corbusier and Perriand (Charlotte), 1929
example of theories in furniture form showing structure “lifting up”

67 Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier, Poissey-sur-Seine, France, 1931

68 ramp turning radius of a car auto beginning to shape architecture



71 service stair treated as sculptural piece

72 grill grate at door for cleaning feet—saw architecture as “machines for living”—help you live
furniture was “equipment” for machine

73 garage doors

74 places sink here to help keep the house “machine” clean

75 white used because it is all about form
sculptural stair front door ramp white used because it is all about form

76 wants you to believe that it is all machine made



79 leads you right into perfect view—”idealized version of nature”

80 creates abstraction of nature on roof to balance footprint below

81 strip window lends visual texture & color to space
structure separated from wall indirect trough lighting

82 burnt orange walls—denote mass
powdery blue trim—delicate base paint highlighted sculptural form

83 living room—very large space + strip windows to view outside


85 spatial complexity

86 bathroom—drip dry on built-in chaise lounge
bedroom curtain for privacy bathroom—drip dry on built-in chaise lounge

87 easy to maintain—house is meant to help you live
skylight built-in storage easy to maintain—house is meant to help you live

88 varied treatment of pilotes throughout space—
freestanding; pretty close to a wall; submerge column partially; hide in wall completely


90 Chaise Lounge (LC4), Le Corbusier and Perriand, 1928
tubular steel, painted wood & leather still being produced today meant to be a moveable system

91 Chaise Lounge (LC4), Le Corbusier and Perriand, 1928

92 french architect and designer
Charlotte Perriand french architect and designer

93 recognized at age 24 for "Bar Under the Roof"—furniture made out of chromed steel and anodized aluminium

94 collaborated with Corbusier for nearly ten years

95 furniture still in production

96 Eileen Gray counterpart for Corbusier & Mies
architect that started out as a decorative artist—completely untrained started in Ireland

97 first craft—lacquering
Le Destin 1914

98 more graphic in nature—leaves classical behind

99 Lacquer work, furniture and screens, Eileen Gray, 1913-1920s
block screen—created so that it is very pliable iconic piece of Eileen Gray Lacquer work, furniture and screens, Eileen Gray, s

100 Madame Levy—Gray’s first interior commission– Rue de Lota
applied concept of block screen down hallway

101 large, custom graphic design on wall
sitting in Pirogue—like boatish daybed

102 fireplace only remaining original interiors—all else Gray modified

103 Pirogue, from the apartment of Mme Levy

104 used a reeding effect—Egyptian inspiration?

105 graphic imagery on wall separates Gray from everyone else

106 House, E1027, Eileen Gray, Roquebrune, France, 1929
example of architectural work—on Mediterranean Ocean in Saint Tropez—built with the help of Jean Badovici

107 part of interior stepping out of the “box”

108 Eileen worked mainly in exploded floor plan

109 looks much bigger than it is
has two bedrooms, a maid's room, utility rooms and a large space, partitioned with screen furniture, that could serve as a living room, dining area, cloakroom or guest room




113 Bathroom, E1027, Eileen Gray, Roquebrune, France, 1929
villa provided what she called the "minimum of space, maximum of comfort"


115 filled every surplus cubic metre with concealed storage compartments
each designed to accommodate a specific item



118 Gray called Le Corbusier's murals "an act of vandalism."

119 detail of Le Corbusier’s mural
Le Corbusier wrote to Gray after staying at E-1027: "Those few days spent in your house have made me appreciate the rare spirit that dictates all of its organization, both inside and outside, and has given the modern furniture and equipment a form that is so dignified, so charming and full of wit."


121 Transatt Chair, Eileen Gray



124 produced a second furniture type for the house—”le style camping"
flexible, light and portable capable of assuming different configurations accommodate a range of activities.

125 Adjustable Table

126 Bibendum Chair

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