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1 is what you are trying to solve.
Review Sheet Final Exam Scientific Method Know the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment. a. Problem is what you are trying to solve. b. Hypothesis is an educated guess. c. Control group is part of the experiment that remains constant. d. Experimental group is part of the experiment being tested. e. Variable is the factor being tested. f. Procedures are the steps taken in an experiment. g. Conclusion answers the problem.

2 Classification What is classification?
Classification is separating organisms into groups according to similarities and differences. What are the 5 kingdoms? Animals, Plants, Moneran, Protist, Fungi Know the characteristics of each kingdom AND examples of organisms in each kingdom Plant Animal Moneran Multicellular Makes own food (autotroph) Multicellular Does not make own food (heterotroph) Unicellular Some make own food Some don’t

3 Fungi Protist Multicellular/ Unicellular Does not make their own food. (heterotroph) Unicellular/Multi Some make their own food. (autotroph) Some do not make their own food. (heterotroph) What is the main difference between plants and fungi? Fungi cannot make their own food. What is the difference between members of the plant and members of the animal kingdom? Plants make their own food.

4 Body temperature changes with the
environment. Animals must change locations to maintain homeostasis. What does coldblooded mean? Give examples of coldblooded animals fish, reptiles, amphibians What does warm-blooded mean? Body temperature does not change with the environment. Give examples of warm-blooded animals birds and mammals

5 Give the characteristics of the following classes of animals and give examples
birds mammals reptiles feathers, hollow bones Hair or fur give birth to live young dry, scaly skin lay eggs on land lizards, snakes, turtles robin, owl, eagle Humans, dogs, cats, Lions, whales, bats fish amphibians scales and gills slimy skin, spend part of life in water and part on land perch, trout, salmon, catfish, bass newts, frogs, salamanders

6 What is the scientific name of humans? Homo sapiens
Cells, Organization and Cell Processes Know the definitions of the following a. Cell is the smallest part of a living thing. brain (nerve) cell b. Tissue is a group of similar cells that work together. brain tissue c. Organ is a group of tissues that work together. brain d. Organ system is made of organs that work together. nervous system e. Organism is made of organ systems that that work together.

7 Is the control center of the cell, controls all cell activities.
What are the functions of the following cell parts a. Nucleus Is the control center of the cell, controls all cell activities. b. Endoplasmic reticulum Is a tube-like passageways that transport proteins. c. Mitochondria is the “powerhouse of the cell” because it produces energy. d. Cell wall is located outside the cell membrane in a plant cell- it supports and protects the plant cell. e. Cell membrane surrounds outside of the cell – it allows materials to pass in and out of the cell.

8 store food, water and wastes.
f. Vacuoles store food, water and wastes. g. Chromosomes are located in the nucleus and contains genes that control traits. h. DNA is a molecule that is shaped like a double helix. It contains the genetic code and is located in the nucleus. List 3 differences between plant and animal cells Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts and large vacuoles. vacuole chloroplast cell wall

9 Know the definition of the following cell processes
a. Diffusion is movement of materials from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. b. Osmosis is the diffusion of water. c. Plasmolysis is the loss of water by a cell causing the cell to shrink. Give examples of osmosis Plants wilt when placed in salt water because water diffuses out of cell by osmosis. gummy bear in fresh water Give examples that would result in the condition of plasmolysis gummy bear in salt water

10 Give examples of diffusion. Iodine diffuses into dialysis tubing.
Explain the relationship of a cell membrane pore to the size of a molecule that is able to enter the cell. The molecule must be small enough to fit through pore. Cell Division What is meiosis? Cell division that results in ½ the number of chromosomes. 2 chromosomes 1 chromosome Meiosis produces sex cells with 1/2 the number of chromosomes of a body cell. In humans, meiosis results in sex cells with how many chromosomes? 23

11 Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with the
What is mitosis? Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. 2 chromosomes Mitosis results in body cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. How many chromosomes are in a human body cell? 46

12 Characteristics of Life
List the characteristics of living things metabolism (ingestion, digestion, respiration, excretion) movement reproduction grow and development made of cell(s) respond to a stimulus Needs of Living Things: FESWOP: Food for energy, shelter and space, water, oxygen and proper body temp.

13 Organisms combine O2 with sugar to get energy.
(cellular respiration) By which life process do organisms continue to maintain their existence? reproduction Sun What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things? What is metabolism? Metabolism is all the chemical activities that occur in an organism. What influences metabolism? diet exercise hormones

14 Bacteria and Viruses What are the 3 shapes of bacteria? round (coccus) rod (bacillus) spiral (spirillus) What conditions do bacteria favor? warm temperatures, high moisture, food Why are some bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics? Cell walls have mutated to make antibiotics ineffective. What is needed for bacteria to reproduce? proper temperature, moisture, food source **** does NOT need a living cell to reproduce What is needed for viruses to reproduce? a host – a living cell Explain ways that bacteria are helpful and harmful used in food (helpful) cause disease (harmful) Are antibiotics used to fight bacteria or viruses? bacteria

15 Reproduction Explain the difference between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Asexual requires one parent and offspring are identical to parent. Sexual requires two parents, offspring not identical to parent causing a variety of traits within a species. What is fertilization? egg + sperm unite

16 Explain the process of photosynthesis.
Plants Explain the process of photosynthesis. CO H2O chlorophyll sunlight O food In the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight, plants take in carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground. They produce oxygen (released into the air) and make food (glucose). What is a tropism? Response of a plant to a stimulus. What is a phototropism? Response of a plant to light. What plant parts exhibit positive or negative phototropism? Stems show positive. They bend toward light. Roots show negative. They grow away from light.

17 What is geotropism? Geotropism is a plant ‘s response to gravity. Stems show negative geotropism, grow upward away from the Earth. Roots show positive geotropism, grow downward toward Earth.

18 What is the function of the skeletal system? Support, protection and
Human Biology What is the function of the skeletal system? Support, protection and movement What are ligaments? Ligaments are tissues that attaches bone to bone. What are tendons? Tendons are tissue that attaches muscle to bone. What are joints? A joint is where 2 or more bones meet. What is cartilage? Cartilage is tissue that cushions and reduces friction. Where is cartilage located? ears, nose, between vertebrae and at joints Fixed joint cranium Ball and socket joint Hinge joint Ball and socket joint Gliding joint Hinge joint Gliding joint

19 What is the function of the muscular system?
Movement and flexibility What is skeletal muscle? Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by tendons and move the body. Work in pairs: when one contracts the other relaxes. What is smooth muscle? Located in the digestive and respiratory system What is cardiac muscle? Located in the heart Give a definition of voluntary muscle Muscles that are under your control. Examples arms, legs, neck Give a definition of involuntary muscle Muscles that are not under your control. Examples digestive, cardiac

20 What is the function of the Circulatory System?
Transports materials and oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells. How many chambers in the human heart? 4 What are veins? Veins are vessels that carry blood to the heart. What are arteries? Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart. What are capillaries? Very thin (one cell thick) walled vessels that connect arteries to veins. Where are blood cells made? In bone marrow

21 What is the substance in red blood cells that
carries oxygen? Hemoglobin Fight Infection What do white blood cells do? What do platelets do? Platelets are involved in clotting of blood. What is a pulse? Measure of the heartbeat or heart rate per minute

22 Know where the following parts of the heart are located and what they do:
Aorta Is the largest artery that carries blood away from the heart. Pulmonary artery takes blood from the heart to the lungs. Right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. Left ventricle pumps blood to the body. Inferior vena cava takes blood from the lower body to the heart. Superior vena cava takes blood from the upper body to the heart. Pulmonary vein takes blood from the lungs to the heart.

23 Lung Lung The general pathway of blood is heart to lungs to heart
to body.

24 What is the function of the nervous system?
Sends and receives messages and coordinates other body systems What is the main job of the brain? Brain sends and receives messages. What do the following parts of the brain control? Cerebellum controls movement and balance. Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. (thinking, reasoning, hearing, seeing) medulla Medulla controls heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.

25 What do spinal nerves do? Nerves take impulses to and from the
spinal cord, to the body and spinal cord. What is the job of the spinal cord? Spinal cord transfers impulses to and from brain. Know the following about a reflex act. Be able to recognize on a diagram. What is a stimulus? Change in environment interneuron What does the sensory neuron do? Picks up stimulus motor What does the interneuron do? Transfers impulse from sensory to motor neuron stimulus response sensory Where is it located? Spinal cord What does the motor neuron do? Causes response. What is a response? An action (what occurs)

26 What is digestion? Digestion is breaking down of food into nutrients. What are the organs of the digestion system? Be able to label these on the diagram. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine Trace the path of food through the digestive system. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine What do the following organs of the digestive system do? Stomach Mechanical digestion- churns food Chemical digestion= gastric juices and pepsin. Large Intestine (colon) removes water from waste. Small intestine is where most digestion absorption takes place. Liver produces bile. Why would someone get diarrhea? Large intestine does not absorb water because waste is moving too quickly.

27 B b Bb Bb b Genetics What is a phenotype? Physical appearance
What is a genotype? Gene makeup of an organism. (pair of letters) What sex chromosomes does a male have? XY What sex chromosomes does a female have? XX Punnett Square Bb Bb B B b B=black b=brown Dominant=B Recessive=b Hybrid=Bb b B BB Bb b b Bb bb Ratio 3:1 Black : brown Probability of getting: Black= ¾ = 75% Brown= ¼ = 25% Phenotype of offspring= All black Genotype of offspring= 4 Bb

28 Ecology Know the following definitions: Producer: Organism that can make its own food. Consumer: Feeds on other organisms Herbivore: Eats plants Carnivore: Eats meat Omnivore: Eats plants and animals Decomposer: Feeds on dead matter and breaks it down Energy Pyramid: Shows the flow of energy through a food chain or web. Energy decreases as you go up.

29 a female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure white
Genetics In guinea pigs black fur (B) is dominant over white fur (b). Fill in the blanks in the Punnett square below to determine a cross between a female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure white guinea pig. B b Phenotype: Phenotype: Genotype : Genotype: Phenotype: Phenotype: Genotype: Genotype: Black White b Bb bb b Black White Bb bb

30 2. If 4 offspring are produced from this cross, what is the ratio of black
to white in the off spring? 2:2 3. Are the black offspring hybrid (heterozygous) or pure (homozygous)? Hybrid (heterozygous) What is the % chance of getting white offspring in this cross? 50% P is the allele for widow’s peak p is the allele for straight line hair Use the pedigree below to answer the questions. 5. How many generations are shown? 3 1 2 6 3 4 5 7 8 9 6. How many children did the parents #1 and #2 have? 4 7. What is the genotype #1? What is the phenotype of #1? Pp Widow’s peak 8. What numbers are hybrid (heterozygous)? 1,2,5,7 = male 9. What numbers have straight line hair? 4,6,8,9 = female 10. What number(s) most likely have the genotype PP? = recessive trait 3 11. How many females have the recessive trait? 1 12. How many males have the dominant trait? 4

31 The Microscope What are the functions of the following parts of a microscope ocular (eyepiece) what you look through and 10X coarse adjustment knob focuses scanning (4X) and low power (10X) fine adjustment knob focuses high power (40X) clips holds slide in place diaphragm regulates amount of light stage where you place the slide How do you determine the total magnification of a microscope? multiply the ocular power by the lens power

32 You are given the following: gummy bear, paper towel and a balance.
How would you determine the mass of the gummy bear? Mass the paper towel, mass the paper towel and the gummy, then subtract the mass of the paper towel. pH Acid: 1-6 Base: 8-14 Neutral: 7

33 nucleus vacuole chromosome cell membrane endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) ribosome vacuole nucleus cell wall E.R. mitochondria chloroplast

34 ocular coarse adjustment knob fine adjustment knob body tube arm revolving nosepiece high power objective low power objective stage clips diaphragm light

35 aorta superior vena cava salivary glands liver pulmonary artery esophagus left atrium inferior vena cava valve large intestine left ventricle rectum right atrium right ventricle

36 sensory neuron motor neuron interneuron cerebrum cerebellum medulla spinal nerves spinal cord Asexual reproduction – genetic material of daughter cell is identical to parent cell

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