Presentation on theme: "is what you are trying to solve."— Presentation transcript:
1 is what you are trying to solve. Review SheetFinal ExamScientific MethodKnow the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment.a. Problemis what you are trying to solve.b. Hypothesisis an educated guess.c. Control groupis part of the experiment that remains constant.d. Experimental groupis part of the experiment being tested.e. Variableis the factor being tested.f. Proceduresare the steps taken in an experiment.g. Conclusionanswers the problem.
2 Classification What is classification? Classification is separating organisms into groupsaccording to similarities and differences.What are the 5 kingdoms?Animals, Plants, Moneran, Protist, FungiKnow the characteristics of each kingdom AND examples of organisms in each kingdomPlantAnimalMoneranMulticellularMakes own food(autotroph)MulticellularDoes not make own food(heterotroph)UnicellularSome make own foodSome don’t
3 FungiProtistMulticellular/ UnicellularDoes not make their own food.(heterotroph)Unicellular/MultiSome make their own food.(autotroph)Some do not make their own food.(heterotroph)What is the main difference between plants and fungi?Fungi cannot maketheir own food.What is the difference between members of the plant and members of theanimal kingdom?Plants make their own food.
4 Body temperature changes with the environment. Animals must changelocations to maintain homeostasis.What does coldblooded mean?Give examples of coldblooded animalsfish, reptiles, amphibiansWhat does warm-blooded mean?Body temperature does not change withthe environment.Give examples of warm-blooded animalsbirds and mammals
5 Give the characteristics of the following classes of animals and give examples birdsmammalsreptilesfeathers, hollowbonesHair or furgive birth to liveyoungdry, scaly skinlay eggs on landlizards, snakes, turtlesrobin, owl, eagleHumans, dogs, cats,Lions, whales, batsfishamphibiansscales and gillsslimy skin, spend partof life in water and part on landperch, trout, salmon,catfish, bassnewts, frogs, salamanders
6 What is the scientific name of humans? Homo sapiens Cells, Organization and Cell ProcessesKnow the definitions of the followinga. Cellis the smallest part of a living thing.brain (nerve) cellb. Tissueis a group of similar cells that work together.brain tissuec. Organis a group of tissues that work together.braind. Organ systemis made of organs that work together.nervous systeme. Organismis made of organ systems thatthat work together.
7 Is the control center of the cell, controls all cell activities. What are the functions of the following cell partsa. NucleusIs the control center of the cell,controls all cell activities.b. Endoplasmic reticulumIs a tube-like passagewaysthat transport proteins.c. Mitochondriais the “powerhouse of the cell”because it produces energy.d. Cell wallis located outside the cell membrane in a plant cell-it supports and protects the plant cell.e. Cell membranesurrounds outside of the cell –it allows materials to passin and out of the cell.
8 store food, water and wastes. f. Vacuolesstore food, water and wastes.g. Chromosomesare located in the nucleus and containsgenes that control traits.h. DNAis a molecule that is shaped like a double helix.It contains the genetic code and is locatedin the nucleus.List 3 differences between plant and animal cellsPlant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts and large vacuoles.vacuolechloroplastcell wall
9 Know the definition of the following cell processes a. Diffusionis movement of materials from areas of highconcentration to areas of low concentration.b. Osmosisis the diffusion of water.c. Plasmolysisis the loss of water by a cell causingthe cell to shrink.Give examples of osmosisPlants wilt when placed in salt waterbecause water diffuses out of cellby osmosis.gummy bear infresh waterGive examples that would result in the condition of plasmolysisgummy bear in salt water
10 Give examples of diffusion. Iodine diffuses into dialysis tubing. Explain the relationship of a cell membrane pore to the size of a molecule that is able to enter the cell.The molecule must be small enough to fit through pore.Cell DivisionWhat is meiosis?Cell division that results in ½ the number of chromosomes.2 chromosomes1 chromosomeMeiosis produces sex cells with 1/2 the number of chromosomes of abody cell.In humans, meiosis results in sex cells with how many chromosomes?23
11 Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with the What is mitosis?Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with thesame number of chromosomes as the original cell.2 chromosomesMitosis results in body cells with the same number of chromosomesas the original cell.How many chromosomes are in a human body cell?46
12 Characteristics of Life List the characteristics of living thingsmetabolism (ingestion, digestion, respiration, excretion)movementreproductiongrow and developmentmade of cell(s)respond to a stimulusNeeds of Living Things: FESWOP: Food for energy,shelter and space, water, oxygen and proper body temp.
13 Organisms combine O2 with sugar to get energy. (cellular respiration)By which life process do organisms continue to maintain their existence?reproductionSunWhat is the ultimate source of energy for all living things?What is metabolism?Metabolism is all the chemical activities that occurin an organism.What influences metabolism?dietexercisehormones
14 Bacteria and VirusesWhat are the 3 shapes of bacteria?round (coccus)rod (bacillus)spiral (spirillus)What conditions do bacteria favor?warm temperatures, high moisture, foodWhy are some bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics?Cell walls havemutated to makeantibiotics ineffective.What is needed for bacteria to reproduce?proper temperature, moisture,food source**** does NOT need a living cell to reproduceWhat is needed for viruses to reproduce?a host – a living cellExplain ways that bacteria are helpful and harmfulused in food (helpful)cause disease (harmful)Are antibiotics used to fight bacteria or viruses?bacteria
15 ReproductionExplain the difference between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.Asexualrequires one parent and offspring are identical to parent.Sexualrequires two parents, offspring not identical to parentcausing a variety of traits within a species.What is fertilization?egg + sperm unite
16 Explain the process of photosynthesis. PlantsExplain the process of photosynthesis.CO H2OchlorophyllsunlightO foodIn the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight, plants take incarbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground. Theyproduce oxygen (released into the air) and make food (glucose).What is a tropism?Response of a plant to a stimulus.What is a phototropism?Response of a plant to light.What plant parts exhibit positive or negative phototropism?Stems show positive.They bend toward light.Roots show negative.They grow away from light.
17 What is geotropism?Geotropism is a plant ‘s response to gravity.Stems show negative geotropism,grow upward away from the Earth.Roots show positive geotropism,grow downward toward Earth.
18 What is the function of the skeletal system? Support, protection and Human BiologyWhat is the function of the skeletal system?Support, protection andmovementWhat are ligaments?Ligaments are tissues that attaches bone to bone.What are tendons?Tendons are tissue that attaches muscle to bone.What are joints?A joint is where 2 or more bones meet.What is cartilage?Cartilage is tissue that cushions and reduces friction.Where is cartilage located?ears, nose, between vertebrae and at jointsFixed jointcraniumBall and socket jointHinge jointBall and socket jointGliding jointHinge jointGliding joint
19 What is the function of the muscular system? Movement and flexibilityWhat is skeletal muscle?Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by tendons and move the body.Work in pairs: when one contracts the other relaxes.What is smooth muscle?Located in the digestiveand respiratory systemWhat is cardiac muscle?Located in the heartGive a definition of voluntary muscleMuscles that are under your control.Examplesarms, legs, neckGive a definition of involuntary muscleMuscles that are not under your control.Examplesdigestive, cardiac
20 What is the function of the Circulatory System? Transports materials and oxygento the cells and carbon dioxidefrom the cells.How many chambers in the human heart?4What are veins?Veins are vessels that carryblood to the heart.What are arteries?Arteries are vessels that carryblood away from the heart.What are capillaries?Very thin (one cell thick) walled vessels thatconnect arteries to veins.Where are blood cells made?In bone marrow
21 What is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen?HemoglobinFight InfectionWhat do white blood cells do?What do platelets do?Platelets are involved in clotting of blood.What is a pulse?Measure of the heartbeat or heart rate per minute
22 Know where the following parts of the heart are located and what they do: AortaIs the largest artery that carries blood away from the heart.Pulmonary arterytakes blood from the heart to the lungs.Right ventriclepumps blood to the lungs.Left ventriclepumps blood to the body.Inferior vena cavatakes blood from the lower body to the heart.Superior vena cavatakes blood from theupper body to the heart.Pulmonary veintakes blood from the lungsto the heart.
23 Lung Lung The general pathway of blood is heart to lungs to heart to body.
24 What is the function of the nervous system? Sends and receives messages andcoordinates other body systemsWhat is the main job of the brain?Brain sends and receivesmessages.What do the following parts of the brain control?Cerebellumcontrols movementand balance.Cerebrumis the largest part of the brain.(thinking, reasoning,hearing, seeing)medullaMedullacontrols heartbeat,breathing, andblood pressure.
25 What do spinal nerves do? Nerves take impulses to and from the spinal cord, to the body andspinal cord.What is the job of the spinal cord?Spinal cord transfers impulsesto and from brain.Know the following about a reflex act. Be able to recognize on a diagram.What is a stimulus?Change in environmentinterneuronWhat does the sensory neuron do?Picks upstimulusmotorWhat does the interneuron do?Transfers impulsefrom sensoryto motor neuronstimulusresponsesensoryWhere is it located?Spinal cordWhat does the motor neuron do?Causes response.What is a response?An action (what occurs)
26 What is digestion?Digestion is breaking down of food into nutrients.What are the organs of the digestion system?Be able to label these on the diagram.Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestineTrace the path of food through the digestive system.Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestineWhat do the following organs of the digestive systemdo?StomachMechanical digestion- churns foodChemical digestion= gastric juicesand pepsin.Large Intestine (colon)removes waterfrom waste.Small intestineis where most digestionabsorption takes place.Liverproduces bile.Why would someone get diarrhea?Large intestine does not absorb waterbecause waste is moving too quickly.
27 B b Bb Bb b Genetics What is a phenotype? Physical appearance What is a genotype?Gene makeup of an organism. (pair of letters)What sex chromosomes does a male have?XYWhat sex chromosomes does a female have?XXPunnettSquareBb BbBBbB=black b=brownDominant=BRecessive=bHybrid=BbbBBBBbbbBbbbRatio 3:1Black : brownProbability of getting:Black= ¾ = 75%Brown= ¼ = 25%Phenotype of offspring=All blackGenotype of offspring=4 Bb
28 EcologyKnow the following definitions:Producer:Organism that can make its own food.Consumer:Feeds on other organismsHerbivore:Eats plantsCarnivore:Eats meatOmnivore:Eats plants and animalsDecomposer:Feeds on dead matterand breaks it downEnergy Pyramid:Shows the flow of energy through a food chain or web. Energy decreases as you go up.
29 a female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure white GeneticsIn guinea pigs black fur (B) is dominant over white fur (b).Fill in the blanks in the Punnett square below to determine a cross betweena female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure whiteguinea pig.BbPhenotype: Phenotype:Genotype : Genotype:Phenotype: Phenotype:Genotype: Genotype:BlackWhitebBbbbbBlackWhiteBbbb
30 2. If 4 offspring are produced from this cross, what is the ratio of black to white in the off spring?2:23. Are the black offspring hybrid (heterozygous) or pure (homozygous)?Hybrid (heterozygous)What is the % chance of getting white offspring in this cross?50%P is the allele for widow’s peakp is the allele for straight line hairUse the pedigree below to answer the questions.5. How many generations are shown?31263457896. How many children did the parents#1 and #2 have?47. What is the genotype #1?What is the phenotypeof #1?PpWidow’s peak8. What numbers arehybrid (heterozygous)?1,2,5,7= male9. What numbers have straight line hair?4,6,8,9= female10. What number(s) most likely have thegenotype PP?= recessivetrait311. How many females have the recessive trait?112. How many males have the dominant trait?4
31 The MicroscopeWhat are the functions of the following parts of a microscopeocular (eyepiece)what you look through and 10Xcoarse adjustment knobfocuses scanning (4X) and low power (10X)fine adjustment knobfocuses high power (40X)clipsholds slide in placediaphragmregulates amount of lightstagewhere you place the slideHow do you determine the total magnification of a microscope?multiply the ocular power by the lens power
32 You are given the following: gummy bear, paper towel and a balance. How would you determine the mass of the gummy bear?Mass the paper towel, mass the paper towel and the gummy,then subtract the mass of the paper towel.pH Acid: 1-6Base: 8-14Neutral: 7