Presentation on theme: "Review Sheet Final Exam Scientific Method Know the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment. a. Problemis what you are trying."— Presentation transcript:
Review Sheet Final Exam Scientific Method Know the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment. a. Problemis what you are trying to solve. b. Hypothesis is an educated guess. c. Control groupis part of the experiment that remains constant. d. Experimental groupis part of the experiment being tested. e. Variable is the factor being tested. f. Procedures are the steps taken in an experiment. g. Conclusionanswers the problem.
Classification What is classification?Classification is separating organisms into groups according to similarities and differences. What are the 5 kingdoms?Animals, Plants, Moneran, Protist, Fungi Know the characteristics of each kingdom AND examples of organisms in each kingdom Plant Multicellular Makes own food (autotroph) Animal Multicellular Does not make own food (heterotroph) Moneran Unicellular Some make own food Some don’t
Fungi Multicellular/ Unicellular Does not make their own food. (heterotroph) Protist Unicellular/Multi Some make their own food. (autotroph) Some do not make their own food. (heterotroph) What is the main difference between plants and fungi? Fungi cannot make their own food. What is the difference between members of the plant and members of the animal kingdom? Plants make their own food.
What does coldblooded mean? Body temperature changes with the environment. Animals must change locations to maintain homeostasis. Give examples of coldblooded animals fish, reptiles, amphibians What does warm-blooded mean?Body temperature does not change with the environment. Give examples of warm-blooded animals birds and mammals
Give the characteristics of the following classes of animals and give examples reptiles dry, scaly skin lay eggs on land birds feathers, hollow bones mammals Hair or fur give birth to live young fish scales and gills lizards, snakes, turtles robin, owl, eagle Humans, dogs, cats, Lions, whales, bats perch, trout, salmon, catfish, bass amphibians slimy skin, spend part of life in water and part on land newts, frogs, salamanders
What is the scientific name of humans? Homo sapiens Cells, Organization and Cell Processes Know the definitions of the following a. Cellis the smallest part of a living thing. b. Tissueis a group of similar cells that work together. c. Organis a group of tissues that work together. d. Organ system is made of organs that work together. e. Organismis made of organ systems that that work together. brain (nerve) cell brain tissue brain nervous system
a. NucleusIs the control center of the cell, controls all cell activities. b. Endoplasmic reticulum Is a tube-like passageways that transport proteins. c. Mitochondria is the “powerhouse of the cell” because it produces energy. d. Cell wallis located outside the cell membrane in a plant cell- it supports and protects the plant cell. e. Cell membrane surrounds outside of the cell – it allows materials to pass in and out of the cell. What are the functions of the following cell parts
f. Vacuolesstore food, water and wastes. g. Chromosomes are located in the nucleus and contains genes that control traits. h. DNAis a molecule that is shaped like a double helix. It contains the genetic code and is located in the nucleus. List 3 differences between plant and animal cells Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts and large vacuoles. vacuole chloroplast cell wall
a. Diffusionis movement of materials from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. b. Osmosisis the diffusion of water. c. Plasmolysisis the loss of water by a cell causing the cell to shrink. Give examples of osmosisPlants wilt when placed in salt water because water diffuses out of cell by osmosis. Give examples that would result in the condition of plasmolysis gummy bear in salt water Know the definition of the following cell processes gummy bear in fresh water
Explain the relationship of a cell membrane pore to the size of a molecule that is able to enter the cell. The molecule must be small enough to fit through pore. Cell Division What is meiosis?Cell division that results in ½ the number of chromosomes. Meiosis produces sex cells with 1/2 the number of chromosomes of a body cell. In humans, meiosis results in sex cells with how many chromosomes?23 2 chromosomes 1 chromosome Give examples of diffusion.Iodine diffuses into dialysis tubing.
What is mitosis? Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. Mitosis results in body cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. How many chromosomes are in a human body cell?46 2 chromosomes
Characteristics of Life List the characteristics of living things metabolism (ingestion, digestion, respiration, excretion) movement reproduction made of cell(s) respond to a stimulus grow and development Needs of Living Things: FESWOP: Food for energy, shelter and space, water, oxygen and proper body temp.
Organisms combine O 2 with sugar to get energy. By which life process do organisms continue to maintain their existence? reproduction What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things? What is metabolism? Metabolism is all the chemical activities that occur in an organism. What influences metabolism?dietexercisehormones (cellular respiration) Sun
Bacteria and Viruses What are the 3 shapes of bacteria? round (coccus)rod (bacillus) spiral (spirillus) What conditions do bacteria favor?warm temperatures, high moisture, food Why are some bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics? Cell walls have mutated to make antibiotics ineffective. What is needed for bacteria to reproduce?proper temperature, moisture, food source **** does NOT need a living cell to reproduce What is needed for viruses to reproduce? a host – a living cell Explain ways that bacteria are helpful and harmfulused in food (helpful) cause disease (harmful) Are antibiotics used to fight bacteria or viruses?bacteria
Reproduction Explain the difference between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Asexualrequires one parent and offspring are identical to parent. Sexual requires two parents, offspring not identical to parent causing a variety of traits within a species. What is fertilization? egg + sperm unite
Plants Explain the process of photosynthesis. CO 2 + H 2 O chlorophyll sunlight O 2 + food In the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight, plants take in carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground. They produce oxygen (released into the air) and make food (glucose). What is a tropism? Response of a plant to a stimulus. What is a phototropism?Response of a plant to light. What plant parts exhibit positive or negative phototropism? Stems show positive. They bend toward light. Roots show negative. They grow away from light.
What is geotropism?Geotropism is a plant ‘s response to gravity. Stems show negative geotropism, grow upward away from the Earth. Roots show positive geotropism, grow downward toward Earth.
Human Biology What is the function of the skeletal system?Support, protection and movement What are ligaments?Ligaments are tissues that attaches bone to bone. What are tendons?Tendons are tissue that attaches muscle to bone. What are joints?A joint is where 2 or more bones meet. What is cartilage?Cartilage is tissue that cushions and reduces friction. Where is cartilage located?ears, nose, between vertebrae and at joints cranium Hinge joint Fixed joint Ball and socket joint Gliding joint
What is the function of the muscular system?Movement and flexibility What is skeletal muscle? Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by tendons and move the body. Work in pairs: when one contracts the other relaxes. What is smooth muscle?Located in the digestive and respiratory system What is cardiac muscle?Located in the heart Give a definition of voluntary muscleMuscles that are under your control. Examplesarms, legs, neck Give a definition of involuntary muscle Muscles that are not under your control. Examples digestive, cardiac
What is the function of the Circulatory System?Transports materials and oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells. How many chambers in the human heart?4 What are veins?Veins are vessels that carry blood to the heart. What are arteries?Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart. What are capillaries?Very thin (one cell thick) walled vessels that connect arteries to veins. Where are blood cells made? In bone marrow
Fight Infection Platelets are involved in clotting of blood. Hemoglobin What is the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen? What do white blood cells do? What do platelets do? What is a pulse?Measure of the heartbeat or heart rate per minute
Is the largest artery that carries blood away from the heart. takes blood from the heart to the lungs. pumps blood to the lungs. pumps blood to the body. takes blood from the lower body to the heart. takes blood from the upper body to the heart. takes blood from the lungs to the heart. Know where the following parts of the heart are located and what they do: Aorta Pulmonary artery Right ventricle Left ventricle Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Pulmonary vein
Lung The general pathway of blood is heart to lungs to heart to body.
What is the function of the nervous system? Sends and receives messages and coordinates other body systems Brain sends and receives messages. controls movement and balance. is the largest part of the brain. (thinking, reasoning, hearing, seeing) controls heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. What is the main job of the brain? What do the following parts of the brain control? Cerebellum Cerebrum Medulla medulla
Nerves take impulses to and from the spinal cord, to the body and spinal cord. Spinal cord transfers impulses to and from brain. Change in environment Picks up stimulus Transfers impulse from sensory to motor neuron Causes response. An action (what occurs) What do spinal nerves do? What is the job of the spinal cord? Know the following about a reflex act. Be able to recognize on a diagram. What is a stimulus? What does the sensory neuron do? What does the interneuron do? Where is it located?Spinal cord What does the motor neuron do? What is a response? interneuron motor stimulus response sensory
Digestion is breaking down of food into nutrients. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine Mechanical digestion- churns food Chemical digestion= gastric juices and pepsin. removes water from waste. is where most digestion absorption takes place. produces bile. Large intestine does not absorb water because waste is moving too quickly. What is digestion? What are the organs of the digestion system? Be able to label these on the diagram. Trace the path of food through the digestive system. What do the following organs of the digestive system do? Stomach Large Intestine (colon) Small intestine Liver Why would someone get diarrhea?
BbBb BB b b Punnett Square Genetics What is a phenotype? Physical appearance What is a genotype? Gene makeup of an organism. (pair of letters) What sex chromosomes does a male have? XY What sex chromosomes does a female have? XX B=black b=brown Phenotype of offspring=All black Genotype of offspring=4 Bb B B b b BBBb bb Ratio 3:1 Black : brown Probability of getting: Black= ¾ = 75% Brown= ¼ = 25% Dominant=B Recessive=b Hybrid=Bb
Know the following definitions: Producer: Organism that can make its own food. Consumer: Feeds on other organisms Herbivore:Eats plants Carnivore: Eats meat Omnivore: Eats plants and animals Decomposer:Feeds on dead matter and breaks it down Energy Pyramid: Shows the flow of energy through a food chain or web. Energy decreases as you go up. Ecology
Genetics In guinea pigs black fur (B) is dominant over white fur (b). 1.Fill in the blanks in the Punnett square below to determine a cross between a female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure white guinea pig. Phenotype: Genotype :Genotype: Phenotype: Genotype: Black White B b b b Bb bb Bbbb
2:2 Hybrid (heterozygous) 50% 2. If 4 offspring are produced from this cross, what is the ratio of black to white in the off spring? 3. Are the black offspring hybrid (heterozygous) or pure (homozygous)? What is the % chance of getting white offspring in this cross? 1 2 6 3 4 5 7 8 9 Use the pedigree below to answer the questions. P is the allele for widow’s peak p is the allele for straight line hair 5. How many generations are shown? 6. How many children did the parents #1 and #2 have? 7. What is the genotype #1? What is the phenotype of #1? 8. What numbers are hybrid (heterozygous)? 10. What number(s) most likely have the genotype PP? 9. What numbers have straight line hair? 11. How many females have the recessive trait? 12. How many males have the dominant trait? 3 4 Pp Widow’s peak 1,2,5,7 4,6,8,9 3 1 4 = male = female = recessive trait
The Microscope What are the functions of the following parts of a microscope ocular (eyepiece)what you look through and 10X coarse adjustment knobfocuses scanning (4X) and low power (10X) fine adjustment knobfocuses high power (40X) clipsholds slide in place diaphragmregulates amount of light stagewhere you place the slide How do you determine the total magnification of a microscope? multiply the ocular power by the lens power
You are given the following: gummy bear, paper towel and a balance. How would you determine the mass of the gummy bear? Mass the paper towel, mass the paper towel and the gummy, then subtract the mass of the paper towel. pH Acid: 1-6 Base: 8-14 Neutral: 7