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Levels of Cellular Organization 6 th Science 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Levels of Cellular Organization 6 th Science 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Levels of Cellular Organization 6 th Science 2011

2 Unicellular vs. Multicellular Unicellular: One celled organism. They must perform all activities within one cell. NO TISSUES, ORGANS, OR SYSTEMS!!

3 Multi-cellular Organisms Multi-cellular – Organisms made of more than one cell. The cells work together to make tissues, organs, and organ systems.

4 Unicellular vs. Multicellular Similar 1.Carry on all 7 characteristics of life. 2.Have the same MAIN cell parts as multi-cellular organisms. Mitochondria, vacuole, ER, nucleus, ribosomes, chloroplast, golgi bodies, etc. Except nucleus in Arachebacteria and Eubacteria Different 1.Cells in multi-cellular organisms have a specific job. Unicellular organism must carry on all 7 characteristics of life in one cell. 2. Multi-cellular organisms have tissues, organs, and organ systems. Unicellular organisms DO NOT.

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6 Levels of Cellular Organization

7 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION -Cells work together to form tissues Cardiac organ Muscle tissue Cardiac cells Bone cells epithelial tissue Bone

8 Levels of Organization Tissue- group of similar cells working together

9 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Tissues work together to form organs

10 Levels of Organization An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose Skin- epithelial-connective-nerve

11 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION -Organs work together to form organ systems heart Arteries & veins Circulatory system bones Cartilage & tendons Skeletal system

12 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION -Organ systems work together to form the whole organism Muscular system Skeletal system Circulatory system Whole organism

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14 Levels of Organization Cells that work together to do the same job form tissues Tissues that work together to do the same job form organs Organs that work together to do the same job form systems Systems work together to form the whole multi-cellular organism

15 4 Types of Tissues Epithelial – SKIN!! Function – Covers the outside of the body and lines the inside of your body!! Your skin is the largest organ in your body!

16 4 Types of Tissues Connective – ligaments, cartilage, blood, and bone Function – fills in space and connects other tissues together; support, protects, nourishs and insulates organs. Bone RBC WBC

17 4 Types of Tissues Muscular – Smooth and skeletal muscles Function - contrasts and relaxes to allow movements; makes up some organs Smooth Skeletal

18 4 Types of Tissue Nervous – nerves(makeup brain and spinal cord) Function – transmits messages through the body

19 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION –Multicellular organisms Have specialized cells to perform specific jobs –The shape of the cell is designed for its job Red blood cells Liver cells Nerve cells Cardiac cells

20 As you know, all living things are made of cells. We have looked at two types of cells: Typical LEAF Plant Cells NOT – root, stem or flower!!!! Typical SKIN Cells – not nervous, muscle, bone, etc But not all plant cells are rectangular and not all animal cells are circular!!!!!!!!!

21 Form Fits Function –The shape of the cell is designed for its job Onion skin cells Nerve Cells

22 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Function – Provide gas exchange between blood and environment. Cell – Smooth muscle Tissue – Smooth muscle Organ – Lungs & nose

23 Digestive System Function – Breakdown and absorb nutrients that are necessary for cellular respiration. Cell – smooth muscle cells Tissue – smooth muscle tissue Organs – stomach, liver, gall bladder, small intestines, large intestines

24 Smooth MUSCLE TISSUE These are smooth muscle cells. Draw it into your notes. Why do you think these cells need to be able to contract smoothly? Notice the Shape: Smooth muscle cells are tube shaped to contract smoothly TO MAKE UP YOUR ORGANS (STOMACH, KIDNEYS, INTESTINES, ETC)

25 SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE Organs where Smooth Muscle tissue can be found are: Digestive System Organ Systems where Smooth MuscleTissue is found: Other organ systems directly dependent on Smooth Muscle Tissue: Respiratory, Reproductive Stomach, intestines, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, other organs.

26 NERVOUS SYSTEM Function – carries messages back and forth between the spinal cord and the brain and every other part of the body. CELL: This is a nerve cell called a neuron. Draw it into your notes. Notice the shape. It is shaped like a wire to carry electrical messages to and from the brain. TISSUE - NERVOUS ORGAN – Brain & spinal cord

27 Nervous Cells Nervous cells are shaped like wires to carry electrical impulses.

28 NERVOUS TISSUE Organs where nervous tissue can be found are: Spinal cord Brain Nerves Neurons

29 NERVOUS TISSUE Other organ systems directly dependent on Nervous Tissue: Muscular System Circulatory System

30 Red Blood Cells Red Blood Cells have a space or hole in the middle to carry oxygen. Why do organisms need oxygen?

31 White Blood Function: Shaped like a blob to engulf foreign objects in the blood. Why do red and white blood cells look different??

32 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Function – Circulates blood throughout your body which carries important nutrition and oxygen for your cells. CELLS - These are red blood cells called erythrocytes. Draw one into your notes. Notice the shape. It has a hole in the center because it doesn’t have any organelles so it can hold more oxygen. It is also very flexible. Why do you think that would be important?

33 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM This is a white blood cell called a leucocyte. Draw it into your notes. Notice the shape: White blood cells are shaped like blobs to gobble up bacteria like Pac-man. Both these blood cells along with platelets make up BLOOD. Blood is a tissue. Why????? RBC WBC

34 Cell & TISSUE: Cardiac Muscle, RBC & WBC These are cardiac muscle cells in cardiac muscle tissue. Draw it into your notes. Notice the shape. Banded for strength and quickness so your heart can pump the blood through your body. Why do you think these cells need to be strong and able to contract quickly? Circulatory System

35 CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE Organs where Cardiac tissue can be found are: Circulatory System Heart ONLY Organ Systems where Cardiac Tissue is found:

36 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Organ Systems where BLOOD Tissue is found: Other organ systems directly dependent on Blood Tissue: ALL OTHER SYSTEMS Circulatory System The Circulatory System is responsible for delivering oxygen and food to all the cells in the body.

37 CONNECTIVE TISSUE TISSUE – Connective, nervous, and muscular. Organs – heart and blood vessels.

38 CIRCULATRY SYSTEM Heart and blood vessels Does blood support, protect or connect?

39 SKELETAL SYSTEM CELL -This is a bone cell. Draw it into your notes. Notice the shape. It has tiny holes called pores to make the bone lightweight but strong. This big hole is where tiny nerves run through. Does bone support, protect or connect? FUNCTION – Provides support for the body and protects organs

40 Bone Cells Bone cells are circular and stack on each other to make the bone strong.

41 Muscle Cells Muscle cells look like rubber bands that contract when they get the impulse from the nerve.

42 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Organs: Bones Tissue: Connetcive Bones Skeletal System Other organ systems directly dependent on Bone Tissue: Muscular System

43 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Cartilage and Fat are also Connective Tissues. What do they do? Cartilage Fat Protects

44 MUSCLE SYSTEM Function – moves and connect your bone Cell – Skeletal Muscle Tissue – Skeletal Muscle Organs – Muscles

45 SKELETAL MUSCLE These are skeletal muscle cells. Draw it into your notes. Why do you think these cells need to be able to contract quickly and smoothly? Notice the Shape:Skeletal muscle cells are banded (striped) to contract quickly, tube shaped to contract smoothly TO MOVE YOUR BONES!!!!!!!!

46 SKELETAL MUSCLE Organs where skeletal muscle can be found are: Muscular System Muscles Organ Systems where Skeletal muscle is found: Other organ systems directly dependent on Cardiac Muscle Tissue: SKELETAL SYSTEM

47 Smooth MUSCLE TISSUE These are smooth muscle cells. Draw it into your notes. Why do you think these cells need to be able to contract smoothly? Notice the Shape: Smooth muscle cells are tube shaped to contract smoothly TO MAKE UP YOUR ORGANS (STOMACH, KIDNEYS, INTESTINES, ETC)

48 SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE Organs where Smooth Muscle tissue can be found are: Digestive System Organ Systems where Smooth MuscleTissue is found: Other organ systems directly dependent on Smooth Muscle Tissue: Respiratory, Reproductive Stomach, intestines, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, other organs.

49 Skin Function : Flat to stack on each other and protect the body.

50 EPITHELIAL TISSUE Function – forms a protective layer for outside of the body (skin) and lines hollow spaces (mouth, ear, nose, etc.) and organs. This is a epithelial (skin) cell. Draw it into your notes. Notice the shape. It is thin and flat to fit together like tiles on a floor to shield the cells underneath.

51 EPITHELIAL TISSUE Organs where epithelial tissue can be found are: Stomach liningMouth lining Lining of the intestines and blood vessels MOST IMPORTANTLY IT MAKES UP THE ORGAN SKIN. THE ORGAN SYSTEM IS SKIN.

52 EPITHELIAL TISSUE Organ Systems where Epithelial Tissue is found: Other organ systems directly dependent on Epithelial Tissue: Digesti ve Syste m Circulatory System

53 PLANT TISSUES Plants are also made up of cells. These cells form tissues and organs just like animals. There are three basic organs in any plant. These organs are the roots, the stem and the leaves. Each one is made up of tissues that perform different functions to keep the plant alive.

54 Leaf Function : Hard brick to stack on each other and make the plant stand up. The vacuole pushes against the cell wall.

55 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS Stems – support the above ground parts of the plant. Transports food and water between the leaves and the roots. Stems help the other two types of plant organs by holding the leaves up so they can receive maximum sunlight. Stems also transport water from the roots to the leaves and transport food from the leaves to the roots.

56 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS Stems are made up of two (2) types of tissue: xylem and phloem These are xylem cells. Draw them into your notes. Notice their shape. Xylem cells are shaped like tubes to carry water and minerals in an upward direction from the roots to the leaves. FUNCTION: Carry water and Minerals to rest of plant.

57 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS Stems are made up of two (2) types of tissue: xylem and phloem These are phloem cells. Draw them into your notes. Notice their shape. Cells are shaped like straws to carry food made in the leaves all over the plant. FUNCTION: Carries food to rest of plant from the leaves.

58 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS ROOTS FUNCTION– absorb water and minerals from the soil, anchor the plant and store food made in the leaves. Roots provide stems and leaves with water and minerals. Roots absorb the water and minerals from the soil

59 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS Roots are also made up of two (2) types of tissue: xylem and phloem This is a root in cross section. Draw it into your notes. Xylem are the cells in the middle. Phloem are the cells around the outside. Xylem and Phloem have the same function in the root. Root in Cross Section

60 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGAN LEAVES FUNCTION: Leaves trap light and make food for the plant through the process of photosynthesis. This is a leaf cell. Draw them into your notes. Notice the Shape: Leaf cells are rectangular for strength. They are also thin and flat to expose the chloroplasts to sunlight.

61 PLANT TISSUES AND ORGANS Leaves trap light and make food for the plant through the process of photosynthesis. This is a leaf in cross section. Mesophyll – the middle layer where photosynthesis takes place. Cuticle – waxy layer, prevents water loss.

62 Skeletal System Function: Provides shape and support, protects organs, and produces red blood cells. Organ: Bone Tissue: Connective Cell: Bone Cell

63 Muscular System Function: Contracts and allows the body to move Organ: Muscle Tissue: Muscle Cell: Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Skeletal Muscle

64 Circulatory System Function: Delivers food and oxygen to the body cell and carries carbon dioxide out. Organs: Heart, veins, and arteries Tissue: muscle and nerve Cell: red blood cell and white blood cell

65 Digestive System Function: Breaks down food for our body to use for energy Organs; Stomach, Small Intestines, Large Intestines, gall bladder, pancreas Tissue: smooth muscle Cell: smooth muscle cell

66 Skeletal System Function: Provides shape and support, protects organs, and produces red blood cells. Organ: Bone Tissue: Connective Cell: Bone Cell

67 Muscular System Function: Contracts and allows the body to move Organ: Muscle Tissue: Muscle Cell: Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Skeletal Muscle

68 Circulatory System Function: Delivers food and oxygen to the body cell and carries carbon dioxide out. Organs: Heart, veins, and arteries Tissue: muscle and nerve Cell: red blood cell and white blood cell

69 Skin Function: Protects the body and your organs Organ: Skin Tissue: Epitheleal Cell: Skin

70 Endocrine System Function: Regulates varies body functions(hormones ) Organs: hypothalmous Tissue: smooth muscle Cell: smooth muscle

71 Excretory System Functions: Removes liquid and solid wastes from the body Organs: kidney, colon, spleen Tissue: smooth muscle Cell: smooth muscle

72 Reproductive System Function: Produces male and females sex cells Organs: testes and ovaries Tissues: smooth muscle Cell: smooth muscle cells

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