Migration Migration is the process of moving from one location to another. Immigration is a kind of migration!
Great Migration Facts Who: 500,000 African Americans What: Migrated from the South to the North Where: Large cities such as New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis
When: The Great Migration happened between 1910 and 1920, especially during World War I. Great Migration Facts
Chicago’s (Illinois) African American population grew from 44,000 in 1910 to 110,000 in 1920. Cleveland’s (Ohio) African American population grew from 8,000 to 34,000.
Reasons for Leaving the South 1. Jobs in the South were scarce (very few) and low paying. ▫African Americans could earn a lot more money in the North
2. African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South. The South was still dealing with the effects of the Civil War, including Jim Crow laws
3. African Americans moved to northern cities and the Midwest in search of better job opportunities. ▫WWI almost completely stopped immigration from Europe ▫The northern industries needed African Americans to work
▫World War I also increased the demand for goods. This increase in demand meant an even greater need for jobs!
Problems African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North and Midwest ▫White workers hated the labor competition
▫White homeowners were upset that overcrowded black neighborhoods overflowed into white neighborhoods
African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem (NYC) revealed the freshness and variety of African American culture. Popularity of these artists spread beyond Harlem to the rest of society.
Jacob Lawrence Jacob Lawrence was a painter who chronicled the experience of the Great Migration north through art Migration Series
Langston Hughes Langston Hughes was a poet who combined the experiences of African and American cultural roots “Ballad of the Landlord”
“Merry-Go-Round” Where is the Jim Crow section On this merry-go-round, Mister, cause I want to ride? Down South where I come from White and colored Can’t sit side by side. Down South on the train There’s a Jim Crow car. On the bus we’re put in the back- But there ain’t no back To a merry-go-round! Where’s the horse For a kid that’s black?
Duke Ellington Jazz Musician Pianist and Composer “It Don’t Mean a Thing” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDQpZT3GhDg What do you see, hear? What does the song make you feel? Sad, Happy, etc?
Louis Armstrong Jazz Musician Singer and Trumpet Player “What a Wonderful World” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2VCwBzGdPM http://youtu.be/2nGKqH26xlg What do you see, hear? How does the music make you feel? Happy, sad, etc?
Bessie Smith Blues singer “Nobody Knows You When You’re Down and Out” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MzU8xM99Uo What do you see, hear? How does the music make you feel? Happy, sad, etc?
Warm Up On a separate piece of paper, choose either a school day or a weekend day and list what you do from wake up to sleep. ▫My morning: Alarm Bathroom Get dressed, fix hair Daughter announces her clock is green Get children dressed for daycare Eat breakfast Pack children’s daycare bag Brush teeth Shoes/Coats Drive to daycare/school
Objectives: Content: Determine which daily activities would not be possible without the advances in the 1920s. Language: Use words or sketches to describe the results of Prohibition.
1920’s Changes The following developments changed American life and the standard of living 1.Transportation 2.Factory and labor productivity 3.Electrification 4.Communication 5.Prohibition
Daily Activities As you learn about each advancement, think about your list from the beginning of class. Cross off any activity that would change if those item(s) had not been developed.
The Wright Brothers invented the first airplane in 1903. The first flight happened in North Carolina http://youtu.be/T5o-fhBKf8Y By 1920s, first commercial airports appear Airplane
While others used it before, Henry Ford has been credited with perfecting the assembly line. Henry Ford used the assembly line to produce his Model T cars faster and cheaper. Led to the rise of mechanization - machines do the job instead of a person Automobile
Results of Improved Transportation Greater mobility Creation of jobs Growth of transportation- related industries (road construction, oil, steel, automobile) Movement to suburban areas
Electricity Thomas Edison perfected the light bulb Electricity changed American Life ▫Washing machines, electric stoves, and water pumps saved a lot of time and labor ▫Electric lighting made it possible to do work into the night Improved communication powered by electricity
Innovations Telephones were more readily available ▫Increased speed of communication Development of motion pictures (movies) ▫First silent and then with sound http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfGs2Y5WJ14 &feature=related
Guglielmo Marconi has been credited with inventing the radio ▫Focused on wireless telegraphy Radio provided a new kind of entertainment
Broadcasting David Sarnoff was a pioneer in the broadcast industry first with bringing radio to the masses and then later television Founded the National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
Daily Activities Wrap Up How many things would you be able to do from your list without the assistance of technology? Are you surprised? Why or why not?
Prohibition Review The temperance movement worked to ban alcohol Prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment (18 th Amendment) that made it illegal to manufacture, transport, and sell alcoholic beverages.
Prohibition can be used to describe the law that banned alcohol OR the period in US History when alcohol was illegal
The Results of Prohibition Speakeasies were created as places for people to drink alcoholic beverages.
Bootleggers smuggled illegal alcohol and promoted organized crime Organized crime – groups of people conducting illegal activities to make a profit. ▫Al Capone was the most famous “American Gangster” http://youtu.be/wgFWsJTA6lI
Aaron Copland Composer and conductor who wrote uniquely American music Populist style “Fanfare for the Common Man” http://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=cr6CnG5dmvM http://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=cr6CnG5dmvM
George Gershwin Composer and pianist who wrote uniquely American Music Classical and popular styles “I Got Rhythm” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vI pNepgmCQA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vI pNepgmCQA American Idol: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlEpSQeRmOQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlEpSQeRmOQ
Georgia O’Keeffe An artist known for urban scenes and, later, paintings of the Southwest
F. Scott Fitzgerald A novelist who wrote about the Jazz age of the 1920s Wrote a novel called The Great Gatsby http://youtu.be/os2gKtW9aZk The Century: http://youtu.be/RN7ftyZigYs
John Steinbeck A novelist who portrayed the strength of poor migrant workers during the 1930s Wrote a novel called The Grapes of Wrath http://youtu.be/MYOmjQO_UMw (1:30 min) http://youtu.be/wrPhFO- 00VQ (7 min)