FL. & FR.: bright yellow; fragrant; in terminal panicles in July; fruit = papery capsule changing from green to yellow to brown
CULTURE: Tolerates dry, hot, windy and alkaline sites; tolerates air pollution; full sun PESTS: None serious USE: Lawns, patios, street tree MISC.: K. bipinnata is similar but less cold hardy (Zone 6-8) but more showy in fruit with red-pink capsules
Tilia americana “American linden” or “basswood” SIZE: Large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; rounded when mature
FOL: Dark green in summer; yellow-green in fall; often no fall color
BARK: Gray to brown, broken into long flat-topped ridges.
FL. & FR.: pale yellow; fragrant; in pendulous cymes in June; fruit = nutlet, not ornamental
CULTURE: Tolerates dry, heavy, and rocky soils; pH adaptable; full sun to partial shade PESTS: Several, however none serious in this area USE: Large areas; naturalizing MISC.: Bees make excellent honey from the nectar in the flowers
Tilia cordata “littleleaf linden” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Remains pyramidal
FOL: Dark, shiney green in summer; yellow- green in fall (not ornamental)
FL. & FR.: Yellowish, fragrant, pendulous cyme in July; fruit = nutlet, not ornamental
CULTURE: Tolerates alkaline soils, pollution tolerant, tolerates pruning PESTS: Aphids and Japanese beetles USE: EXCELLENT street tree, shade tree, planter tree, hedge MISC.: Bees like this too! Many cultivars: ‘Fairview’ and ‘Greenspire’ are the most common
Tilia tomentosa “silver linden” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; pyramidal-oval when mature
FOL: Lustrous dark green above and silvery- white, tomentose below
BARK: Light gray and smooth, can be beech like on mature trunks
FL. & FR.: yellow-white, fragrant, pendulous cymes in July; fruit = nutlet, not ornamental
CULTURE: Tolerates alkaline soils, pollution tolerant, tolerates pruning; tolerates heat and dry better than other lindens PESTS: Few; aphids USE: Excellent street tree or residential shade tree MISC.: Several cultivars; flowers are narcotic to bees
Celtis occidentalis “common hackberry” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Pyramidal when young; vase-shaped when mature vase-shaped when mature
FL. & FR.: Not showy; fruit = dark purple drupe, 1/3”
CULTURE: Tolerates most soils and pH; tolerates wet or dry soils; tolerates wind; tolerates city “dirt” PESTS: Nipple galls; witches’ brooms USE: Does well in the open prairie (dry and windy); large spaces; attracts wildlife MISC.: VERY hard seed
Ulmus americana “American elm” SIZE: Large! HABIT: Vase shaped when mature
BARK: Dark gray with deep fissures. Outer bark in cross section shows layers of whitish- buff color alternating with darker layers.
FL. & FR.: Not showy; fruit = 1/2” disk- shaped samara in June
CULTURE: Easily transplanted; fibrous roots; tolerates standing water; pH and salt tolerant USE: Majestic and graceful; street and lawn tree; use limited by disease; native MISC.: Once the most commonly used tree in towns across America.
PESTS: Wetwood (bacteria); cankers; leaf curl aphid; leaf spot; Dutch elm disease (Fungus = Ophiostoma ulmi spread by elm bark beetle); Japanese beetles; fall cankerworms; leaf miner...
Ulmus parvifolia “lacebark elm” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Rounded, upright but pendulous branchlets
FOL: Lustrous dark green in summer; yellow- red in fall (ok)
BARK: Exfoliating in irregular patches, exposing lighter bark beneath
FL. & FR.: Not showy; fruit = 1/3” round samara in October CULTURE: Easily transplanted; pH and soil adaptable; tolerates poor soils and urban conditions PESTS: Few (relatively); resistant to Dutch elm disease USE: Lawn or street tree
MISC.: An excellent tree! Do not confuse with U. pumila (also called “Chinese elm”)
Zelkova serrata “Japanese zelkova” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Vase-shaped
FOL: Dark green in summer; yellow-orange- red-purple in fall
BARK: Reddish brown in youth. Becoming more gray-brown with age. Can exfoliate in a manner not unlike U. parvifolia
FL. & FR.: Not showy; fruit = a tiny drupe in fall (not showy)
CULTURE: Transplant easily; pH adaptable; wind and drought tolerant; pollution tolerant; susceptible to frost when young PESTS: Resistant to Dutch elm disease; elm leaf beetle and Japanese beetle; few USE: Lawns, streets, large areas. A “replacement” for U. americana A “replacement” for U. americana MISC.: Marginally hardy here!
USE: Specimen, street tree (good under utility lines), pruned into hedges in Europe
Acer ginnala “amur maple” SIZE: Small to medium tree HABIT: Multi-stemmed shrub or small tree; variable
FOL: Glossy dark green in summer; yellow to red in fall (not consistent)
BARK: Grayish brown in color, generally smooth with dark striations
FL. & FR.: Flowers fragrant in May (not showy); fruit = schizocarp, parallel hanging samaras, 1”
CULTURE: Easily transplanted; soil and pH adaptable; tolerates heavy pruning; tolerates some shade PESTS: Few USE: Patio, screen, mass, container plant MISC.: Very cold hardy (USDA Zone 2)
Acer griseum “paperbark maple” SIZE: Small to medium tree HABIT: Upright-oval
FOL: Bluish-green in summer; russet-red in fall
BARK: Rich brown to reddish brown. Outstanding and VERY ornamental
FL. & FR.: Not showy; fruit = schizocarp with 1” samaras
CULTURE: Transplant B&B or container in spring; soil and pH adaptable: tolerates clay PESTS: None USE: Small yard, patio, specimen MISC.: OUTSTANDING exfoliating red bark!!
Acer palmatum “Japanese maple” SIZE: Small tree HABIT: Variable! Cultivar dependent!
FOL: Typically green in summer becoming yellow or red in fall
BARK: Variable. Young stems range from green to reddish purple. Mature bark is often smooth gray.
FL. & FR.: Red-purple umbels in June; fruit = schizocarp with 1/2” red samaras
CULTURE: Never let dry out before or after transplanting! Protect from frost! Tolerates light shade PESTS: None serious USE: Specimen, accent, patio, bonsai MISC.: Many, many cultivars… For USDA Zones 4-5, Acer pseudosieboldianum (“Korean maple”) would be a better choice
FL. & FR.: Red-purple corymbs in June; fruit = schizocarp with 1/2” purple-brown samaras
CULTURE: Never let dry out before or after transplanting! Protect from frost! Tolerates light shade PESTS: None serious USE: Specimen, accent, patio, bonsai MISC.: A better choice for USDA Zones 4-5 than A. palmatum
Acer triflorum “three-flower maple” SIZE: Small tree HABIT: Upright-spreading, full, dense and rounded canopy.
FOL: Trifoliate! Dark green in summer becoming an outstanding yellow and/or red in fall
BARK: Bark is golden amber in color and exfoliating
FL. & FR.: Clustered in three’s in June; fruit = schizocarp with 1” green samaras at 120°, thick nutlets and hairy covering
CULTURE: Never let dry out before or after transplanting! Best B & B. Prefers acidic, MWDS. PESTS: None serious USE: Specimen, accent, patio, bonsai MISC.: Outstanding plant! Develops peeling/exfoliating bark which is golden yellow-brown. Cultivar selections needed!
Rhus typhina “staghorn sumac” SIZE: Small tree to medium shrub HABIT: Loose and open, spreading; rounded crown from clustered plants
FOL: Bright green in summer; yellow- orange-red in fall (spectacular!)
STEMS: Young stems are covered in a velvety pubescence. Older stems become gray and smooth.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; yellowish in June in 8” panicles (sl. showy); Fruit = (on female) is a red, hairy drupe clustered on a pyramidal panicle
CULTURE: Easily transplanted; tolerates all soils except wet sites; tolerates urban conditions PESTS: None serious USE: Massing, naturalizing MISC.: “Laciniata” = cut-leaf, female clone. Does not sucker as readily as the species. Can be propagated by root pieces and suckers.
Aralia spinosa “devils-walkingstick” SIZE: Small tree to medium shrub HABIT: Single or multistemmed; spreading; very open and coarse
FOL: Dark green in summer; yellowish in fall (not showy)
STEMS: Gray-straw colored, armed with many sharp prickles. Distinct leaf scars half encirling buds.
FL. & FR.: Tiny white in mid-summer on 1 - 1.5’ terminal panicles; Fruit = tiny purple- black drupe (not showy) however the infructescence turns pinkish-red!!
CULTURE: Easy to transplant; tolerates clay and rocky soils; tolerates partial shade; pH tolerant; urban tolerant PESTS: None serious USE: For rugged areas and difficult locations; use tempered by spreading shoots from roots; naturalizing MISC.: Novelty plant, somewhat weedy… Aralia elata (“Japanese aralia”) is more cold hardy and lacks prickles. There are several outstanding variegated forms of A. elata
Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ “fastigiate European hornbeam” SIZE: Small tree HABIT: Single trunked with a conical habit; densely “twiggy”
FOL: Dark green in summer; yellowish in fall (not showy)
BARK: Smooth, steel gray, fluted with a muscle like character
FL. & FR.: Monoecious, catkins in April (not showy); Fruit = nutlet attached to a mitten- shaped bract in Sept. (not showy)
CULTURE: Easy to transplant; tolerates most soils except wet; tolerates partial shade; pH tolerant; urban tolerant; pruning tolerant PESTS: None serious (a very “clean” plant) USE: Formal tree; ok for foundation plantings; good as a street tree; makes a good winter screen due to extensive branches MISC.: The most common cultivar of this species in cultivation. The species is rare in the U.S.
Carpinus caroliniana “American hornbeam” SIZE: Medium shrub or small tree HABIT: Multistemmed; widespreading; occasionally single-stemmed and upright
FOL: Dark green in summer; yellow-orange- scarlet in fall (can be quite nice!)
FL. & FR.: Monoecious; not showy; Fruit = nutlet with 3-lobed bract, clustered on raceme, persist, turning red in fall
CULTURE: Difficult to transplant; tolerates heavy shade (fall color better in sun); tolerates wet sites PESTS: None serious USE: Naturalizing MISC.: Underutilized in landscapes
Kolkwitzia amabilis “beautybush” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Upright and arching; vase-shaped; leggy with age
FOL: Dull dark green in summer; sl. yellowish- reddish in fall (not showy)
BARK: Light grayish brown and often exfoliating on older stems
FL. & FR.: Pink, trumpet-shaped, 1” long in May- June clustered in corymbs; Fruit = 1/4” bristly, dehiscent capsule (persistent)
CULTURE: Easily transplanted; pH adaptable; full sun to partial shade PESTS: None serious USE: Accent; hedge; mass MISC.: Spectacular in flower but not much after that! Interesting peeling bark.
Lonicera tartarica “tartarian honeysuckle” SIZE: Medium shrub HABIT: Upright, multistemmed; dense and twiggy
FOL: Bluish-green in summer; yellowish in fall (not showy)
STEMS: Green at first, turning brownish with age
FL. & FR.: 1” long, thin trumpet white to red in May; Fruit = 1/4” berry orange-red in summer
CULTURE: Easily transplanted; tolerates most soils and conditions! Full sun to partial shade PESTS: None serious USE: Hedge; shrub border; weedy! MISC.: Birds eat and spread seeds… Classified as an invasive weed in Vermont! DO NOT use an an ornamental plant!
Viburnum sieboldii “Siebold viburnum” SIZE: Large shrub or small tree HABIT: Upright and open; spreading
FOL: Glossy, dark green in summer; no fall color; holds leaves late in fall
FL. & FR.: White in 5” flat-topped cymes in May; Fruit = oval 1/2” red becoming black drupe in fall; infructescence is red in fall and showy after fruit drops
CULTURE: Transplants easily; sun or partial shade; requires a moist site or leaves will scorch; pH adaptable PESTS: None serious USE: Specimen; foundation plant for large buildings; fruit attracts wildlife MISC.: Foliage is foetid when crushed; birds love the fruit; underutilized