CULTURE: Difficult... deep tap root (2 - 3 ft); slow growing PESTS: None serious USE: Naturalizing; attracts wildlife MISC.: Used to smoke ham/bacon. Amazing shaggy bark!
Cladrastis kentukea (lutea) American yellowwood SIZE: Medium HABIT: Low branched, somewhat vase- shaped with rounded crown
FOL: bright green in summer; golden yellow in fall
BARK: mature bark is smooth and gray, reminiscent of beech bark. The heartwood is yellow.
FL. & FR.: white, fragrant, pendulous, 1 long, terminal panicles in June
CULTURE: pH tolerant, prune only in summer (bleeder); can develop weak crotch angles PESTS: Few USE: Shade tree, good contrasting foliage color; residential ok MISC.: Yellow heartwood; bees frequent
Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis thornless honeylocust SIZE: Medium (variable) HABIT: Open, spreading crown
BARK: Reddish brown broken up into long ridges. Can have very abrasive thorns.
FL. & FR.: Polygamo-dioecious (mix of perfect and imperfect flowers), not showy; pod = reddish- brown, strap-like, 1.5 and twisted
CULTURE: Drought and wet tolerant; VERY salt tolerant; prefers basic soils PESTS: Spider mites; webworm, etc... USE: Lawn tree for filtered shade; pest- problems temper widespread use
MISC.: Moraine = a seedless cultivar; Ruby Lace = opens ruby-red and becomes purple-bronze; the species (G. triacanthos) has stout, branched thorns; overused as a replacement for American elms during the 50s and 60s
FL. & FR.: Dioecious or Polygamo- dioecious (mix of perfect and imperfect flowers), greenish and not showy; pod = reddish-brown, strap-like, 6-8
CULTURE: Prefers deep, rich soils; adapats to basic soils, drought and urban conditions PESTS: None serious USE: Parks and large areas MISC.: One of the last trees to leaf-out in spring. seeds used by settlers as a substitute for coffee (when dried and ground); an outstanding native tree!
Robinia pseudoacacia black locust SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Upright, serpentine trunk; unusual and striking when mature
BARK: Very distinctive with deep furrows and large ridges.
FL. & FR.: Individual flowers are white and 1; very fragrant; in dense racemes 6 long in June; 4 long, flat, tan pods
CULTURE: Extremely adaptable; tolerates dry and salty conditions; does NOT tolerate wet sites; prune in summer (bleeder) PESTS: Canker, leaf spots, powdery mildew, leaf miner, etc... USE: Typically a trash tree; survives tough conditions MISC.: Bees produce an outstanding honey from this tree; Umbraculifera = umbrella- like canopy, 20, few flowers
Sophora japonica Japanese scholar-tree SIZE: Medium HABIT: Upright and spreading with rounded crown; open canopy
FOL: Medium green; leaves fall off green in the south but turn butter yellow here
BARK: Pale brown in color. Can be similar to black locust on mature plants.
FL. & FR.: White, sl. fragrant, in 1 long panicles in July (showy)
CULTURE: Sensitive to cold when first transplanted; established plants heat and drought tolerant; tolerate air and soil pollution PESTS: Leaf hoppers USE: Good for urban sites, poor soil, lawns; slightly messy MISC.: Used around Buddhist temples; underutilized
FL. & FR.: Petals have a greenish-yellow exterior and an orange interior, upright, cup-shaped flower 5tall; fruit = aggregate of samaras (not showy)
CULTURE: pH adaptable; fleshy and poor root system; does NOT tolerate drought PESTS: Leaf scorch; aphids (sooty mold); leaf spots USE: Large areas; naturalizing; in groups MISC.: Weak-wooded; will yellow and defoliate first in a drought
BARK: Gray brown with some ridges and furrows at maturity.
FL. & FR.: Petals greenish-yellow, 3 long, sl. fragrant, in June (not showy); Aggregate of follicles (cucumber-like)
CULTURE: Tolerates alkaline soils; does NOT tolerate wet or dry sites; NOT pollution tolerant; fleshy roots PESTS: None USE: Large areas, naturalizing MISC.: Outstanding plant according to 1998 Cary Award plants for New England; underutilized
Morus alba common mulberry SIZE: Medium HABIT: Extremely dense canopy, rounded crown
FOL: Variable, typically a good dark lustrous green; fall color variable, green to yellow
BARK: Younger stems have an orange cast to the bark. Mature plants exhibit a more brown color.
Nyssa sylvatica black gum SIZE: Medium HABIT: Pyramidal when young; dense, horizontal branches and rounded when mature
FOL: Dark, lustrous green in summer; fall color is outstanding! fluorescent yellow, orange, scarlet, purple
BARK: Quite variable, often broken into thick irregular blocks. Mature bark can have an alligator hide appearance.
FL. & FR.: Polygamo-dioecious; fruit = oblong drupes, 1/2, edible by wildlife
CULTURE: Difficult to transplant (taproot); prefers acidic, MWDS; full sun or partial shade PESTS: Cankers and leaf spots USE: Specimen tree; street tree in rural or suburban sites; naturalizing MISC.: One of the best native trees for consistent fall color!
Fraxinus americana white ash SIZE: Large HABIT: pyramidal when young; upright and rounded when mature
FOL: Medium green; sometimes yellow but typically purple/maroon in fall
BARK: Gray in color, forming straight ridges and furrows.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; not showy; fruit = clusters of pendulous, tan samaras
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; pH adaptable, prefers MWDS (less tolerant of adverse conditions than F. pennsylvanica ) PESTS: leaf spots, cankers, ash borer, galls, scale, etc… Phytoplasms = ash yellows PESTS: leaf spots, cankers, ash borer, galls, scale, etc… Phytoplasms = ash yellows Phytoplasmas are minute wall-less bacteria that inhabit the phloem of diseased plants USE: Lawns, woodlands, large areas MISC.: Junginger = Autumn Purple ® a female cultivar with oval form and excellent purple fall color; other cultivars available Ash yellows: Ash yellows: http://willow.ncfes.umn.edu/ht_ash/ht_ash.htm
Fraxinus pennsylvanica green ash SIZE: Medium HABIT: pyramidal when young; irregular to rounded when mature
BARK: Similar to white ash but ridges arent as straight and bark doesnt appear to be as clean.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; not showy; fruit = clusters of pendulous, tan samaras
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates high pH, salt, drought, and poor soils PESTS: leaf spots, cankers, ash borer, galls, scale, etc... USE: Lawns, street tree,...; over-planted MISC.: Marshalls Seedless = a male cultivar; other cultivars available
Emerald Ash Borer Emerald ash borer - Agrilus planipennis - is a new insect in the US from AsiaEmerald ash borer - Agrilus planipennis - is a new insect in the US from Asia
BARK: Very ornamental, olive green to cream colored exfoliating bark.
FL. & FR.: Monoecious; not showy; fruit = syncarp (multiple fruit) in a 1.5 round globe (in 2s); disperses in October (fluff)
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates basic soils, air pollution (except ozone), heat, drought, and severe pruning PESTS: Canker, powdery mildew USE: Large open areas MISC.: Messy... bark exfoliates in plates in Spring, fruits disperse seeds in early fall, and foliage drops without fall color
Platanus occidentalis American planetree SIZE: Large HABIT: Pyramidal and open when young; wide- spreading, open crown when mature
BARK: Scaly near the base, exfoliating on upper trunk exposing white inner layers.
FL. & FR.: Monoecious; not showy; fruit = syncarp (multiple fruit) in a 1.5 round globe; disperses in October (fluff)
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates basic soils, air pollution, and light shade PESTS: Canker, powdery mildew USE: Large open areas; naturalizing MISC.: Messy... bark exfoliates in plates in Spring, fruits disperse seeds in early fall, and foliage drops without reward
Prunus sargentii Sargent cherry SIZE: Medium HABIT: Vase-shaped when mature
FOL: New foliage is reddish; lustrous, dark green in summer; bronze to red fall color
BARK: Rich polished maroon to chestnut brown. Prominent lenticels.
FL. & FR.: Single, pink 1.5 across, clustered in umbels in May; fruit = 1/3 purple-black drupe in July
Pyrus calleryana Bradford Bradford pear SIZE: Medium HABIT: Conical/pyramidal when young; upright oval when mature
FOL: Very dark, glossy green foliage; scarlet and purple in fall
BARK: Lightly ridged and furrowed. Grayish brown at maturity.
FL. & FR.: White, 1/2 across, in corymbs in May before foliage, malodorous; fruit = 1/2 round, tan pome (not showy)
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates drought; tolerates air pollution PESTS: Resistant to fireblight (bacteria) USE: Street tree, lawn tree; overused! MISC.: Found all over the country!!! Tight crotch angles that are subject to splitting in ice or storms
Phellodendron amurense amur corktree SIZE: Medium HABIT: Broad spreading with a short trunk, open and rounded crown crown
BARK: Distinctly ridged and furrowed on mature bark. Gray-brown in color.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; not showy; fruit = 1/2 black drupe in October (female)
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates air pollution PESTS: None; leaf scorch USE: Parks and large areas; NOT a good street tree MISC.: May be added to the weedy tree list out West. Not a problem in Vermont
Populus alba white poplar SIZE: Medium HABIT: Broad spreading, open and rounded crown
FOL: Dark green above and silver-white below; no fall color
BARK: Light green to whitish with darker blotches. Mature trunks can become dark with deep furrows.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; not showy; fruit = 3-4 catkin containing capsules (female)
CULTURE: Easy to grow! Soil adaptable; tolerates air pollution, pH, and salt spray; prune in summer/fall (bleeds if pruned in winter/spring) PESTS: Canker, leaf spots, aphids, etc. USE: Parks and large areas; NOT a good street tree or residential tree as roots can clog drains MISC.: Dirr hates this plant! Can sucker from roots and can be weak-wooded but it adds an unusual color to the landscape!!
Populus deltoides Eastern cottonwood SIZE: Large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; vase-shaped when mature (often irregular) (often irregular)
FOL: Medium green above and below; seldom any fall color
BARK: Gray and divided into thick flattened ridges separated by deep fissures.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; catkins (not showy); fruit = capsules releasing cottony seeds in June
CULTURE: Tolerates dry or wet sites; tolerates salt and pollution; pH adaptable PESTS: Canker, rusts, spots, powdery mildew USE: None except along rivers/streams MISC.: Very messy; weak wooded; best in river bottoms
Populus nigra Italica Lombardy poplar SIZE: Medium HABIT: Columnar
FOL: Dark green above and light below; no fall color
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; male catkins; not showy BARK: Whitish bark in youth which becomes dark and slightly furrowed with time.
CULTURE: Soil adaptable PESTS: Canker often kills this plant USE: Windbreak MISC.: Very short-lived; introduced to North America in 1784 from Italy. Very formal tree widely used in Europe and Montreal, Canada
Salix alba Tristis golden weeping willow SIZE: Medium HABIT: Mounded and weeping
FOL: Bright green above and silvery (glaucous) below; yellow in fall
Salix matsudana Tortuosa dragons claw willow SIZE: Medium HABIT: Upright and spreading
FOL: Bright green above and silvery (glaucous) below; yellowish in fall
BARK: Greenish brown, similar to S. alba. FL. & FR.: Dioecious; catkins; (not showy). This is a female clone!
CULTURE: Prefer moist to wet sites PESTS: Rust, aphids, canker, willow leaf beetle, etc... USE: Beautiful around ponds and lakes MISC.: Weak-wooded; short-lived; good for florist industry; interesting texture in the winter landscape