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Forestry 280 Features of Woods 57-74. #57: Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis  Avg. SG: 0.62  Heartwood Color: Light to dark brown or reddish brown.

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Presentation on theme: "Forestry 280 Features of Woods 57-74. #57: Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis  Avg. SG: 0.62  Heartwood Color: Light to dark brown or reddish brown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Forestry 280 Features of Woods 57-74

2 #57: Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis  Avg. SG: 0.62  Heartwood Color: Light to dark brown or reddish brown  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Small to medium, solitary or in radial multiples of 2 to several; with lens, pore diameters clearly greater than ray width; some pores appear to be filled with whitish substance

3 #58: Paper Birch Betula papyrifera  Like yellow birch, except that heartwood is lighter and less yellow in color  Don’t separate Yellow from Paper birch (#57 and 58)

4 #59: Red Alder Alnus rubra  Avg. SG: 0.41  Heartwood Color: Pale tan when freshly cut darkening w/age to light reddish brown  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Small, solitary and in mostly radial multiples  Rays: Large aggregate rays widely scattered but easily seen w/o lens

5 #60: American Beech Fagus grandifolia  Avg. SG: 0.64  Heartwood Color: Creamy white w/reddish tinge to medium reddish brown  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous; growth rings distinct  Pores: Small, solitary and in irregular multiples and clusters; numerous and evenly distributed throughout most of the ring; narrow but distinct latewood in each ring having fewer, smaller pores  Rays: Largest rays conspicuous on all surfaces; darker ray fleck against lighter background on radial surfaces

6 #61: Magnolia Magnolia grandiflora  Diffuse porous; pores small and evenly distributed throughout growth ring  Heartwood color variable from yellowto greenish black  Marginal parenchyma create whitish lines at growth ring boundaries

7 #62: Yellow Poplar Liriodendron tulipifera  Avg. SG: 0.42  Heartwood Color: Green, or yellow to tan w/greenish cast  Sapwood Color: Creamy white  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous; growth rings delineated by distinct light cream or yellowish line of marginal parenchyma  Pores: Small, solitary, but mostly in radial or irregular multiples and small clusters  Rays: Distinct on cross section w/lens; produce conspicuous fine light ray fleck on radial surface

8 #63: California laurel Umbellularia californica  Wood heavy, hard  “Relatively few pores”  Pores encircled by vasicentric parenchyma gives appearance of a whitish sheath around pores and pore multiples  Heartwood may have a “spicy” or “wintergreen” odor

9 #64: Sweetgum or Redgum Liquidambar styraciflua  Avg. SG: 0.52  Heartwood Color: Grey or reddish brown, sometimes w/variegated pigment  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Very small, numerous, solitary and in multiples and small clusters, often in intermittent radial chains  Rays: Very fine, not distinct even w/hand lens  DON’T SEPARATE from #71, Black Gum/Tupelo

10 # 65: Sycamore Platanus occidentalis  Avg. SG: 0.49  Heartwood Color: Light to dark brown, usually w/reddish cast  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous; growth rings distinct d/t unusual lighter color of latewood  Pores: Small, solitary and in irregular multiples and clusters, numerous and evenly distributed throughout most of the growth ring  Rays: Easily visible w/o lens on all surfaces, appearing uniform in size and evenly spaced on transverse and tangential surfaces, producing conspicuous dark ray fleck on radial surfaces

11 #66: Holly Ilex opaca  Wood hard and heavy  Very light colored heartwood, “ivory white”  Narrow and broad rays  Pores arranged in long radial strings

12 #67: Sugar Maple Acer saccharum (hard maple)  Avg. SG: 0.63  Heartwood Color: Creamy white to light reddish brown  Pore Distribution: Diffuse-porous; growth rings distinct due to darker brown narrow latewood line  Pores: Small, with largest approximately equal to maximum ray width in cross section; solitary or in radial multiples; very evenly distributed  Rays: Visible to eye on tangential surface as very fine, even-sized, evenly distributed lines; on radial surfaces, ray fleck usually conspicuous  DON’T SEPARATE from soft maple (#68)

13 #68: Red Maple Acer rubrum (Soft maple)  Heartwood Color: Creamy white to light reddish brown, commonly with grayish cast or streaks  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Small, solitary and in radial multiples, very evenly distributed; largest as large or slightly larger than widest rays on cross section  Rays: May be visible on tangential surface as very fine, even-sized and evenly spaced lines; on radial surfaces, ray fleck usually conspicuous  DON’T SEPARATE from hard maple, #67

14 #69: Buckeye Aesculus octandra, A. glabra  Heartwood creamy white to yellowish white, often with darker streaks  Fine, closely-spaced rays  Marginal parenchyma form whitish lines at growth ring boundaries  Wood light and soft  Look for RIPPLE MARKS on tangential surface

15 #70: Basswood Tilia americana  Heartwood Color: Creamy white to pale brown  Wood is relatively easy to cut & carve  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous; growth rings indistinct or faintly delineated by marginal parenchyma, sometimes w/blurry whitish spots along growth ring  Pores: Small, mostly in irregular multiples and clusters  Rays: Distinct but not conspicuous on transverse surface with lens; look for ray fleck on radial surfaces

16 #71: Black Tupelo Nyssa sylvatica  Avg. SG: 0.50  Heartwood Color: Medium grey or grey with green or brown cast  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Very small, numerous, solitary and in multiples and small clusters  Rays: Barely visible even with hand lens; closely spaced, appearing to make up half of the transverse surface  DON’T SEPARATE from #64 (Sweetgum)

17 #72: Dogwood Cornus florida  Avg. SG: 0.73  Heartwood Color: Dark brown  Sapwood Color: Creamy w/flesh or pinkish cast  Pore Distribution: Diffuse- porous  Pores: Very small, mostly solitary with some radial multiples  Rays: Approximately as wide or wider than largest pores

18 #73: Honduras mahogany Swietenia macrophylla (or Tropical American mahogany)  Heartwood reddish brown  Pores visible to eye, rather circular in cross- section, solitary and in multiples  Ripple marks often observed on tangential-longitudinal surfaces

19 #74: Lauan Shorea spp. (or Philippine mahogany)  Avg. SG: 0.46  Heartwood: Pale grayish or yellowish brown w/pinkish cast and silvery sheen  Growth Rings: Not distinct  Pores: Medium-large to very large, distinct w/o lens, solitary and in radial groups of 2-3  Gum Ducts: In long tangential lines, embedded in bands of parenchyma; free of contents  Parenchyma: Vasicentric and aliform with short wings  Rays: Barely visible without lens; forms distinctive ray fleck on radial-longitudinal surfaces

20 Others

21 African Mahogany Khaya spp.  Avg. SG: 0.63  Heartwood: Pale rosy red to dark reddish brown, often purplish cast  Grain: Typically interlocked producing even striped figure  Growth Rings: Usually indistinct, but sometimes distinct d/t increased fiber density in outer latewood  Pores: Medium to med. large, visible w/o lens, evenly distributed solitary and in radial groups of 2-8  Gum: Some pores w/red gum  Parenchyma: Usually not distinct w/o lens; terminal parenchyma occasionally present, poorly defined  Rays: Distinct on cross section  Ray Fleck: On radial surfaces, ray fleck darker than background

22 Teak Tectona grandis  Avg. SG: 0.57  Heartwood: Dark golden yellow turning dark brown or nearly black  Grain: Straight  Odor: Characteristic spicy odor  Growth Rings: Distinct; wood usually ring-porous  Pores: Earlywood pores very large, solitary and in radial groups of 2-3; latewood pores smaller, not numerous, evenly distributed; vessels w/tyloses or with yellowish or whitish deposits  Parenchyma: Terminal & Vasicentric  Rays: Distinct w/o lens

23 Acknowledgement  Photomacrographs by Zach Kriess  Supplemental photomacrographs (those with white text showing scientific name) courtesy of the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory


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