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Wood Identification Study Guide for Forest Technology Students The following wood identification study guide was initially designed to assist forest technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Wood Identification Study Guide for Forest Technology Students The following wood identification study guide was initially designed to assist forest technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wood Identification Study Guide for Forest Technology Students The following wood identification study guide was initially designed to assist forest technology students in identifying the wood of different tree species that are covered at the University of Maine at Fort Kent. Cross-sectional images are included for 30 species. Important macro-features useful for identification purposes are indicated and described in each image. In some instances, an image of the tangential face is also included where it may be useful for identification. I wish to make this resource available to all forest technology instructors and their students. Please feel free to use this guide as you wish in your classes. My only stipulation is that I receive credit for all images that appear in this guide. It is my intent in the future to add additional species. If you would like to add a species that you cover in class, please send me a small sample with a brief description of the species and I will add it to the guide. Any feedback in regard to this guide is appreciated. Jeff Dubis Assistant Professor of Forestry University of Maine at Fort Kent

2 While viewing as a slideshow, you may go directly to any species by clicking on the name below HARDWOODS Red Oak White Oak White Ash Black Ash Hickory American Elm Black Walnut Butternut American Beech Sycamore Sugar Maple Red Maple Yellow/White birch Black Cherry Basswood Yellow Poplar Quaking Aspen SOFTWOODS White Pine Red Pine Southern Yellow Pine White Spruce Douglas-Fir Tamarack Balsam Fir Eastern Hemlock Northern White Cedar Incense Cedar Western Red Cedar Eastern Red Juniper Redwood

3 Red Oak Very dense wood Reddish-brown heartwood Ring porous Pores very large in earlywood Rays two widths. Largest clearly visible Obvious bands of parenchyma between latewood pores Dubis 2001 Back to menu

4 White Oak Very dense wood Light to dark brown heartwood Ring porous. Pores very large in earlywood Abundant tyloses Obvious bands of parenchyma between earlywood pores and in flame-tracts Rays two widths. Largest clearly visible Dubis 2001 Back to menu

5 White Ash Very dense wood Pale yellow to light brown heartwood with a golden tinge Ring porous. Lesser number of latewood pores Parenchyma arrangement Aliform Vasicentric Confluent Rays very indistinct. Visible with hand lens Dubis 2001 Back to menu

6 Black Ash Very dense wood Reddish- brown heartwood Ring porous. Earlywood pores larger than white ash Vasicentric parenchyma. No bands of parenchyma. Rays very indistinct. Visible with hand lens Dubis 2001 Back to menu

7 Hickory Very dense wood Pale brown to brown heartwood Ring porous. Generally a single row of large earlywood pores. Latewood pores very indistinct but visible with hand lens Tyloses Banded parenchyma. Rays very indistinct. Visible with hand lens Dubis 2001 Back to menu

8 American Elm Moderately dense wood Pale brown to brown heartwood Ring porous. Single row of pores in early- wood. Latewood pores in ulmiform arrangement. Parenchyma not visible. Rays very indistinct. Visible with hand lens Dubis 2001 Back to menu

9 Black Walnut Very dense wood Very distinct odor when freshly cut Light –brown to chocolate-brown heartwood Semi-ring porous. Gradual transition between latewood and earlywood pores Diffuse-aggregate parenchyma. Barely visible with hand lens. Rays very indistinct. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

10 Red OakButternut Moderately light wood. Easily scratched with fingernail Nutty taste and odor Light to medium brown heartwood Semi-ring porous. Tyloses Diffuse aggregate parenchyma. Rays very indistinct. Visible with hand lens Dubis 2001 Back to menu

11 American Beech Dense wood Heartwood white with reddish-brown tinge Diffuse-porous. Pores visible only with hand lens Parenchyma not visible. Rays both bi-serrate and multiserate. Largest very visible Noded rays Ray flecks on Tangential face Dubis 2001 Back to menu

12 Sycamore Moderately dense wood Heartwood light to dark brown with reddish tinge Diffuse-porous. Visible only with hand lens. Solitary or in irregular multiples Parenchyma not visible. Rays both Uniserate and multiserate. Noded rays Ray flecks on Tangential face Dubis 2001 Back to menu

13 Sugar maple Very dense wood Heartwood light reddish-brown Diffuse-porous.Solitary pores small but distinct without a hand lens Parenchyma not visible. Rays fairly obvious without a hand lens. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

14 Red Maple Moderately dense wood Heartwood light to medium brown Diffuse-porous.Solitary pores small but distinct without a hand lens Parenchyma not visible. Rays fairly obvious without a hand lens. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

15 Yellow/White Birch Moderately dense to very dense wood Heartwood light to dark-brown or reddish brown Diffuse-porous. Pores solitary or in radial multiples. Largest pores wider than largest rays. Parenchyma not visible. Rays visible with hand Dubis 2001 Back to menu

16 Black Cherry Moderately dense wood Heartwood reddish-brown Diffuse-porous. Pores solitary or in radial multiples. Row of pores along growth ring. (not obvious in picture) Parenchyma not visible. Rays visible with hand Dubis 2001 Back to menu

17 Basswood Moderately light wood. Can be scratched with fingernail Light to pale brown heartwood Diffuse-porous. Pores solitary or in pore clusters. Boundary parenchyma arrangement Rays visible to unaided eye. No ray nodes Dubis 2001 Back to menu

18 Yellow Poplar Light wood. Can be scratched with fingernail though less than basswood or aspen Yellow-green heartwood. Rarely with purple tinge. Diffuse-porous. Pores solitary or in pore clusters. Boundary parenchyma arrangement Noded rays visible to unaided eye. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

19 Quaking Aspen Very soft wood. Can be scratched with fingernail Creamy white heartwood. Diffuse-porous. Pores solitary, or arranged in radial multiples or pore clusters. Parenchyma not visible Rays Uniserate. Barely visible with hand lens. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

20 White Pine Cream to light brown to reddish-brown heartwood. Slightly resinous odor Medium texture Rays Uniserate. Very fine. Barely visible with hand lens. Medium-sized resin canals appearing as white flecks Gradual latewood transition Dubis 2001 Back to menu

21 Red Pine Cream to light brown to reddish-brown heartwood. Very strong resinous odor Medium texture Rays Uniserate. Very fine. Small-medium-sized resin canals barely visible to unaided eye Fairly abrupt latewood transition Cream to light brown to reddish-brown heartwood. Very strong resinous odor Medium texture Rays Uniserate. Very fine. Small-medium-sized resin canals barely visible to unaided eye Fairly abrupt latewood transition Dubis 2001 Back to menu

22 Southern Yellow Pine Dubis 2001 Variable heartwood color. Ranges from yellow to orange to reddish-brown to light brown Strong resinous odor Medium texture Resin canals very obvious in latewood Rays Uniserate. Very fine. Abrupt latewood transition. Latewood very dense and wide Back to menu

23 White Spruce White to pale yellow- brown. Same as sapwood No odor Fine texture Rays Uniserate. Very fine. Resin canals appear as small white dots Semi-abrupt latewood transition. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

24 Douglas-Fir Variable heartwood color ranging from yellow to pale reddish- yellow to orange red to deep red. Characteristic plywood odor Resin canals small white dots Fairly coarse texture Rays Uniserate. Abrupt latewood transition. Sometimes wavy Dubis 2001 Back to menu

25 Tamarack Yellowish to light brown heartwood No odor Resin canals small and scattered. Sometimes in multiples Fine to medium texture Rays Uniserate. Lustrous tangential and radial face. Abrupt latewood transition. Very dense Dubis 2001 Back to menu

26 Balsam Fir White to yellowish- white heartwood. Same as sapwood No odor No resin canals Medium texture Lacking rays tracheids. Gradual latewood transition. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

27 Eastern Hemlock White to yellow-brown. Same as sapwood No odor No resin canals Medium to coarse texture Rays not visible with hand lens Abrupt latewood transition. Sometimes wavy Dubis 2001 Back to menu

28 Northern White Cedar Light to medium straw brown heartwood Mild, sweet odor No resin canals Fine to medium texture Rays very fine. Visible with hand lens Gradual transition but latewood is obvious. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

29 Incense Cedar Reddish-brown to dull brown heartwood Strong distinct odor. Smells like wooden pencils No resin canals Medium texture Rays very fine. Barely visible with hand lens Gradual latewood transition. Acrid taste Dubis 2001 Back to menu

30 Western Red Cedar Reddish to dull brown heartwood Sweet fragrant cedar smell No resin canals Medium to course texture Rays very fine. Barely visible with hand lens Abrupt latewood transition. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

31 Eastern Red Juniper White to yellowish- white sapwood.Distinct reddish-brown or purplish-brown heartwood Dark red parenchyma Very strong and fragrant smell No resin canals Very fine texture Rays very fine. Gradual latewood transition. Dubis 2001 Back to menu

32 Redwood Light red to deep reddish brown No odor No resin canals Very course texture Rays coarse for a conifer species Abrupt latewood transition. Dubis 2001 Back to menu


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