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Geography of Ancient Egypt

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1 Geography of Ancient Egypt
Miss Lynch 6th Grade Social Studies Chapter 4 Lesson 1 in World Book

2 The Big Picture People began farming villages in the Nile river valley in Africa. The land near the river was so lush and green because of the flooding. Left deposits of silt rich land

3 The Gift of the Nile The Nile is referred to as “The Gift” since it flooded and created land for farming. The Nile is the world’s longest river. It flows from East Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The rainy season lasts from May until September and causes the Nile to flood. The silt, which is a mixture of tiny bits of soil and rock is carried and deposited by the river.

4 The Gift of the Nile Near the Mediterranean, the river branches off forming a delta, a fan-shaped area of land which is very fertile because of the silt left behind. The Nile Delta region is located in the North of Egypt. The delta seems to be higher; however, this area is called Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is located in the South. Here the river cuts through cliffs and desert sands.

5 A Land of Drought and Flood
Egyptian farmers always welcomed mud/floods because it contained silt which was rich in minerals needed by plants. The black soil contrasted sharply with the dry, yellow sand of Egypt’s desert. In many places a farmer could stand with one foot on farmland and the other on sand. Farmers depended on the right amount of flooding each year. Too little flooding meant farmers’ crops didn’t grow and too much flooding caused cattle and homes to be destroyed.

6 …A Land of Drought and Flood
In October the land began to dry and farmers planted: Wheat, barley, cucumbers, lettuce, onions, beans, and flax. The farmers used irrigation to water their crops. At first farmers built dirt walls around their farmland to hold the Nile floodwaters. Later, they dug canals to bring water from the Nile directly to their farmland. They scooped water from the canals and poured it into their fields.

7 …A Land of Drought and Flood
By March the crops were ready for harvesting. In good years, families that had a surplus gathered their goods and carried them off to storehouses. The harvest time ended in late June because the Nile began to flood. During the 4- month flood farmers would visit neighboring villages. The Nile was the main way that people and goods moved from place to place The 600 mile journey between Upper and Lower Egypt would take over a month to walk. In a reed boat it only took half that time.

8 Why it matters? Early farming communities of ancient Egypt centered around the Nile River. The Nile River provided: Fertile soil Water for irrigation Means of transportation

9 Main Ideas The Nile is the world’s longest river.
More than 4,000 miles long Farmers’ understanding of the yearly Nile floods made community life in Egypt possible. Mineral-rich silt deposits and irrigation technology made farming in ancient Egypt very productive. People used boats to get from place to place along the Nile.

10 Video =480341

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