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Looking to the West (1860-1900) ◊Moving West. The West ◊Push Factors Crowding back East Displaced farmers Former slaves Eastern farmland expensive Ethnic.

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Presentation on theme: "Looking to the West (1860-1900) ◊Moving West. The West ◊Push Factors Crowding back East Displaced farmers Former slaves Eastern farmland expensive Ethnic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Looking to the West ( ) ◊Moving West

2 The West ◊Push Factors Crowding back East Displaced farmers Former slaves Eastern farmland expensive Ethnic and religious repression in Europe Haven for outlaws ◊Push Factors Crowding back East Displaced farmers Former slaves Eastern farmland expensive Ethnic and religious repression in Europe Haven for outlaws ◊Pull Factors Government incentives ◊Pacific Railway Act ◊Morrill Land-Grant Act ◊Homestead Act Private Property ◊Miners ◊Ranchers ◊Farmers

3 “Push” Factors ◊The Civil War had displaced thousands of farmers, former slaves, and other workers. ◊Eastern farmland was too costly. ◊Failed entrepreneurs sought a second chance in a new locations. ◊Ethnic and religious repression caused people to seek the freedom of the west. ◊Outlaws sought refuge. “Pull” Factors ◊The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 ◊Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862 ◊Land speculators ◊Homestead Act, 1862 ◊Legally enforceable property rights When geographers study reasons for major migrations, they look at what they call push-pull factors-events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so. Here are some push-pull factors for moving west. The Lure of the West

4 GO WEST, YOUNG MAN! ◊The Myth of the Frontier ◊“Manifest Destiny” ◊Civil War over ◊Adventure ◊Resources ◊Wealth (Gold, Cattle, Land) ◊The Myth of the Frontier ◊“Manifest Destiny” ◊Civil War over ◊Adventure ◊Resources ◊Wealth (Gold, Cattle, Land)

5 Settlers From Far and Wide ◊German-speaking immigrants arrived seeking farmland. They brought the Lutheran religion with its emphasis on hard work and education. ◊Lutherans from Scandinavia settled the northern plains from Iowa to Minnesota to the Dakotas, many pursuing dairy farming. ◊Irish, Italians, European Jews, and Chinese settled in concentrated communities on the West coast. They took jobs in mining and railroad construction that brought them to the American interior. ◊After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans rode or walked westward, often fleeing violence and exploitation. ◊Benjamin “Pap” Singleton led groups of southern blacks on a mass “Exodus,” a trek inspired by the biblical account of the Israelites’ flight from Egypt to a prophesied homeland. Hence, the settlers called themselves Exodusters. Some 50,000 or more Exodusters migrated west. ◊German-speaking immigrants arrived seeking farmland. They brought the Lutheran religion with its emphasis on hard work and education. ◊Lutherans from Scandinavia settled the northern plains from Iowa to Minnesota to the Dakotas, many pursuing dairy farming. ◊Irish, Italians, European Jews, and Chinese settled in concentrated communities on the West coast. They took jobs in mining and railroad construction that brought them to the American interior. ◊After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans rode or walked westward, often fleeing violence and exploitation. ◊Benjamin “Pap” Singleton led groups of southern blacks on a mass “Exodus,” a trek inspired by the biblical account of the Israelites’ flight from Egypt to a prophesied homeland. Hence, the settlers called themselves Exodusters. Some 50,000 or more Exodusters migrated west.

6 Pacific Railway Acts ◊1862, 1864 ◊Large land grants to Union Pacific RR and Central Pacific RR ◊175 million acres

7 Morrill Land Grant Act ◊1862 ◊State governments received millions of acres of land to: Sell Create land grant colleges for agricultural and mechanical arts ◊1862 ◊State governments received millions of acres of land to: Sell Create land grant colleges for agricultural and mechanical arts

8 Homestead Act ◊1862 ◊Small fee, settlers received 160 acres if: 21 yrs old Citizens or immigrants filing for citizenship Minimum sized house Lived on claim 6 months out of the year Farm the land for 5 years in a row ◊372,000 farms ◊80 million acres

9 Exodusters ◊Free blacks looking for new start after the Civil War ◊Most headed to Kansas (“pulled” by the Homestead Act and free land. ◊Exodusters based on the biblical “Exodus” of the Hebrews from Egypt - leaving bondage for freedom in the “Promised Land”

10 Exodusters - Nebraska Connection:

11 Homesteader Homes ◊Built with available materials (sod) ◊Small ◊Functional as a shelter ◊Built with available materials (sod) ◊Small ◊Functional as a shelter

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27 Homesteader lifestyle ◊Difficult ◊Subsistence farmers ◊Some livestock ◊Grasshoppers ◊Storms ◊Distance ◊Lack of building materials

28 Homesteader Conclusion


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