2Why Go West: Push Factors Civil WarEastern Farmland CostsFailed EntrepreneursRace and Religious PersecutionCompetition for Jobs
3Why Go West: Pull Factors Homestead ActSettlers received 160 acres of land.Had to be 21 year old male or head of household.American citizen or immigrant filing for citizenship.Built a house and lived there at least 6 months a year.Farm land for 5 years in a row before receiving ownership.Opportunity to strike it richGold Rush!! expansion/videos#gold-rush
4Transcontinental Railroad Congress provided loans and land grants for private building of the Transcontinental RR.Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 & 1864Union and Central Pacific RR10 square miles to either side of track given to RR companyRR company sold land closest to tracksProvided a way to ship goods across continent faster.ICC: Interstate Commerce ActRailroads had to charge all customers the same fee for shipping goods.expansion/videos#transcontinental-railroad
5What Will We Do? - MinersGold discovered at Sutters Mill California, leads to Gold RushTowns spring up and merchants followSome towns were “boomtowns” meaning they were there as long as the Gold and Silver was there.Originally used Placer miningOnce surface ores had been mined big businesses came in and mined deep seams with dynamite and Hydraulic Drill.Many immigrants were used to do these dangerous jobs for low wages.
7What Will We Do? - Ranchers Learned from MexicansOpen-Range SystemBranded cattle, roamed freely, cowboys rounded them up and drove them to cow towns.Joseph Glidden invents barbed wire ending open- range systemGustavus Swift invents refrigerated railcar to ship meat more efficiently.
8What Will We Do? - Farmers Homestead ActFormer Slaves looking for new life, “exodusters”Settled the plains and built sod housesMorrill Land Grant ActStates sold land to create “land grant” colleges specializing in agriculture and mechanical artsInnovationsDry farmingWindmillBarbed Wire
10Native AmericansJust when we thought Jackson had tortured them enough…Indians were restricted to smaller reservationsPioneers brought diseases which they had no immunities to
11Native Americans: Indian Wars Sand Creek MassacreColorado militia v. Cheyenne and Arapaho (who were under U.S. protection)Battle of Little Big HornBlack Hills Gold rush brought people to Dakotas on Sioux hunting land.Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull lead Indians to drive out the settlersGeorge Custer arrived early (trying to be the big shot) with 250 men (verses 2,000 Indians).Crazy Horse led the charge and killed Custer and his men
12Native American: Indian Wars Wounded KneeCame about in response to the Ghost DanceGovernment was trying to arrest Sitting BullConfrontation ensued and Sitting Bull was killedTroops then went after Indians who fledHostilities at Wounded Knee100 innocent lives lostEnded the Indian Wars
13Native Americans: Assimilation and Dawes Act Now that you lost be like us…Policy makers hoped to assimilate Native Americans into White American ways. (page 167)Encouraged to go to boarding schoolsAccept alternate ways of lifeDawes ActGranted each Native American family 160 acres of farmlandLand would no longer be sharedGranted American citizenship