2Questions What conditions lured people to migrate to the West? Where did the western settlers come from?How did the American frontier shift westward?
3Push-Pull FactorsWhen geographers study reasons for major migrations, they look at what they call push-pull factorsPush-Pull Factors-events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so.
4Push FactorsPush factors are conditions that drive people from their home landsPush factors include:War/Conflict/Violence (displacement)FamineScarce land in home countryPolitical or religious persecutionPoverty
5Pull FactorsPull factors are conditions that attract people to a new country or areaPull factors include:The promise of political or religious freedomHope for a new lifeIndustry (i.e. the North vs. South)JobsLandMoney
6Push Factors After the Civil War The Civil War had displaced thousands of farmers, former slaves, and other workers.Eastern farmland was too costly.Failed entrepreneurs sought a second chance in a new locations.Ethnic and religious repression caused people to seek the freedom of the west.Including former slavesOutlaws sought refuge.
7Pull Factors After the Civil War The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862Land speculationHomestead Act, 1862Legally enforceable property rightsResource speculation
9German Immigrants to the West German-speaking immigrants arrived seeking farmland.They brought the Lutheran religion with its emphasis on hard work and education.Many moved to what is now the Midwest including Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan, and Nebraska
11Scandinavian Immigrants to the West Lutherans from Scandinavia settled the northern plains from Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin and the DakotasMany pursuing dairy farming.
12Other Immigrants to the West Irish, Italians, European Jews, and Chinese settled in concentrated communities on the West coastThey took jobs in mining and railroad constructionThis brought them to the American interior.
13Chinese ImmigrantsRailroad companies began hiring Chinese men as workersThe workers were punctual, willing and well-behavedAlso known as “Celestials” because of their religious beliefsExperienced harassment from Caucasian workers
14Chinese Immigrants Chinese teams were organized into groups of 20 Each group had a white foremanEach worker received $27/mo compared to $35/mo Irish workers madeIrish workers received housing but Chinese workers did not
15African-American Immigrants to the West After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans rode or walked westward, often fleeing violence and exploitationMany African-Americans sought the opportunity to own and farm their own landThey also saw the west as a way to escape the discrimination and violence they experienced in the South
16African-American Immigrants to the West Benjamin “Pap” Singleton led groups of southern blacks on a mass “Exodus”a trek inspired by the biblical account of the Israelites’ flight from Egypt to a prophesied homelandHence, the settlers called themselves Exodusters
17Benjamin “Pap” Singleton Born a slave in 1809 but escaped tofreedom in Detroit in 1846After the war he returned to TennesseeEven though former slaves had freedom they were still terrorized by the KKKSharecropping essentially re-enslaved many former slaves by limiting profitSingleton decided he wanted to help former slaves escape the violence and oppression of the south so………..
18Benjamin “Pap” Singleton Singleton decided to lead his people to the promised land (Kansas)Like a “Black Moses” he encouraged people to make the exodus to Kansas for more opportunitiesThis mirrored the story of Moses, the man who led his people (the Jews), to the promised land in the BibleIn 1873 nearly 300 Blacks followed him to Cherokee County, Kansas and founded “Singleton’s Colony”
20Singleton and the Exodusters Between 1870 and 1881 the organized movement of African-Americans gave way to a larger “Exodus”Tens of thousands of Southern Blacks fled to Kansas and other Northern states to flee oppressionMany came unprepared but most who remained ultimately improved their quality of lifeMany also made important contributions to the state and their communitySingleton, the man known as the “Father of the Negro Exodus” died in 1892
21ExodustersSome 50,000 or more Exodusters migrated west.