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Why do people move?.  What conditions lured people to migrate to the West?  Where did the western settlers come from?  How did the American frontier.

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Presentation on theme: "Why do people move?.  What conditions lured people to migrate to the West?  Where did the western settlers come from?  How did the American frontier."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why do people move?

2  What conditions lured people to migrate to the West?  Where did the western settlers come from?  How did the American frontier shift westward?

3  When geographers study reasons for major migrations, they look at what they call push-pull factors  Push-Pull Factors-events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so.

4  Push factors are conditions that drive people from their home lands  Push factors include:  War/Conflict/Violence (displacement)  Famine  Scarce land in home country  Political or religious persecution  Poverty

5  Pull factors are conditions that attract people to a new country or area  Pull factors include:  The promise of political or religious freedom  Hope for a new life  Industry (i.e. the North vs. South)  Jobs  Land  Money

6  The Civil War had displaced thousands of farmers, former slaves, and other workers.  Eastern farmland was too costly.  Failed entrepreneurs sought a second chance in a new locations.  Ethnic and religious repression caused people to seek the freedom of the west.  Including former slaves  Outlaws sought refuge.

7  The Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864  Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862  Land speculation  Homestead Act, 1862  Legally enforceable property rights  Resource speculation

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9  German-speaking immigrants arrived seeking farmland.  They brought the Lutheran religion with its emphasis on hard work and education.  Many moved to what is now the Midwest including Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Michigan, and Nebraska

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11  Lutherans from Scandinavia settled the northern plains from Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas  Many pursuing dairy farming.

12  Irish, Italians, European Jews, and Chinese settled in concentrated communities on the West coast  They took jobs in mining and railroad construction  This brought them to the American interior.

13  Railroad companies began hiring Chinese men as workers  The workers were punctual, willing and well-behaved  Also known as “Celestials” because of their religious beliefs  Experienced harassment from Caucasian workers

14  Chinese teams were organized into groups of 20  Each group had a white foreman  Each worker received $27/mo compared to $35/mo Irish workers made  Irish workers received housing but Chinese workers did not

15  After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans rode or walked westward, often fleeing violence and exploitation  Many African-Americans sought the opportunity to own and farm their own land  They also saw the west as a way to escape the discrimination and violence they experienced in the South

16  Benjamin “Pap” Singleton led groups of southern blacks on a mass “Exodus”  a trek inspired by the biblical account of the Israelites’ flight from Egypt to a prophesied homeland  Hence, the settlers called themselves Exodus ters

17  Born a slave in 1809 but escaped to freedom in Detroit in 1846  After the war he returned to Tennessee  Even though former slaves had freedom they were still terrorized by the KKK  Sharecropping essentially re-enslaved many former slaves by limiting profit  Singleton decided he wanted to help former slaves escape the violence and oppression of the south so………..

18  Singleton decided to lead his people to the promised land (Kansas)  Like a “Black Moses” he encouraged people to make the exodus to Kansas for more opportunities  This mirrored the story of Moses, the man who led his people (the Jews), to the promised land in the Bible  In 1873 nearly 300 Blacks followed him to Cherokee County, Kansas and founded “Singleton’s Colony”

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20  Between 1870 and 1881 the organized movement of African-Americans gave way to a larger “Exodus”  Tens of thousands of Southern Blacks fled to Kansas and other Northern states to flee oppression  Many came unprepared but most who remained ultimately improved their quality of life  Many also made important contributions to the state and their community  Singleton, the man known as the “Father of the Negro Exodus” died in 1892

21  Some 50,000 or more Exodusters migrated west.

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