# Starter – Factors affecting fertility rates

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Starter – Factors affecting fertility rates
List and explain the factors that affect fertility rates in different countries. HINT: Why do most MEDCs have fewer babies than LEDCs? Education Improved health Family planning Increase income Political factors / government control Expensive

Learning outcomes You should all be able to:
Identify the factors that affect fertility rates. Identify the components of age/sex pyramids and the demographic transition models. Most of you should be able to: Interpret the data from age/sex pyramids and demographic transition models to reach a conclusion Some of you might be able to: Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human population

Age/sex pyramids? Look at these examples of age/sex pyramids and write down what they represent. Describe and explain the differences between the pyramids from the two countries. HINT: Think about birth rate, death rate, life expectancy and gender differences

Mozambique, 2000 Mozambique, 2025 What are dependents? Describe and explain what is happening to the population of Mozambique between 2000 and 2025?

UK, 2000 UK, 2025 Describe and explain what is happening to the population of the UK between 2000 and 2025?

Instructions: Calculate the percentage of males and females for each age range. Using the blank graph use the percentages to create your own age/sex pyramid. Decide if your country is an LEDC or MEDC and explain your choice. Now look at your partner’s graph and compare the two. What are the similarities and differences?

LEDC MEDC

Figure 1 shows age/sex pyramids (X, Y and Z) for three different countries in the year 2010.
Exam question State which pyramid (X, Y or Z) represents each of the following countries. [1]

Look at the DTM and discuss what is happening at each stage.
Total population still rising rapidly. Gap between birth and death rates narrows due to availability of contraception and fewer children being needed to work. Natural increase rate is high. LEDCs, Afghanistan, Sudan and Libya. UK passed through this stage by 1850. Total population rises as death rates fall due to improvements in health care and sanitation. Birth rates remain high. Total population is high but balanced by a low birth rate and death rate. Birth control is widely available. There is a desire for smaller families. Total population is high but going into decline due to an ageing population. Still a desire for smaller families & people opting to have children later in life. Wealthier LEDCs, Brazil, China and Argentina. UK passed through this stage about 1950. UK and most MEDCs are at this stage. Germany and Sweden. No countries, some indigenous tribes. UK until about 1750. Total population is low but balanced due to high birth rates and death rates. Look at the DTM and discuss what is happening at each stage. Demographic Transition Model (DTM)