5A new opportunity from 3M 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Protection FluidSustainable technology for special hazardsA new opportunity from 3MToday, I would like to introduce Novec brand 1230 Fire Protection Fluid from 3M—an advanced, “second generation” halon replacement technology that offers an effective, sustainable solution for your customers…and a new opportunity for you.A new opportunity from 3M
6Market Definition: “For fire protection of special hazards” High value Must continue operationsLife safety is paramount– Including emergency phones & control centers– Area protected is usually occupiedMust be a clean agentNovec 1230 fluid is ideal for “special hazards” applications. By this we mean areas containing high-value equipment and systems that cannot be shut down in an emergency—such as telecommunications facilities and airport control towers. Special hazards applications typically include the presence of people, so life safety is a critical issue. And finally, these types of special hazards require that a clean agent be used.
7A Breakthrough in Fire Protection Science Novec Fire Protection Fluid is based on a proprietary new chemistry from 3M called C6-fluoroketone; it is also known as dodecafluoro 2-methylpentane-3-one; its ASHRAE nomenclature is FK mmy2—the way it is designated in NFPA 2001 and ISO clean agent standards.Most fluorinated ketones are not fire suppressants. In fact, the most common fluorinated ketone, hexafluoroacetone, is extremely toxic.That’s why it was something of a surprise when C6 fluoroketone turned out to be a breakthrough in the search for a sustainable halon replacement…combining highly efficient extinguishing performance with excellent safety and environmental properties.C6 Fluoroketone
8Introduction to 3MBefore I get into the technical aspects of Novec 1230 fluid, I’d like to give you just a quick background on 3M, and how the company’s reputation for innovation and reliability can help make it easier for you to bring this breakthrough product to market.
9Global Focus Operations in more than 60 countries Sales in nearly 200 countries50%+ of sales50% of employees3M is a diversified technology company with sales of more than $16 billion, headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota. 3M manufactures products serving industrial, commercial, health care and consumer markets. And, incidentally, 2002 marks 3M’s 100th anniversary.One of 3M’s strengths is its strong global focus. Today, more than half of 3M’s sales come from outside the United States. Our products are sold in nearly 200 nations around the world. In addition to our U.S. operations, we have international operations in more than 60 countries, including manufacturing operations in 41 and research and development facilities in 29. This global network of people, technologies and resources helps us bring our customers the best the world has to offer.
103M Facts Year-end 2001 Contributions Sales 3M Performance Earnings 3M and 3M Foundation More than $47 million3M PerformanceInitiativeSix Sigma3M AccelerationeProductivitySourcing EffectivenessIndirect-cost ControlSalesWorldwideInternational(53% of total)....…EarningsNet income …......R&D ExpendituresFor ……Total last 5 years…..EmployeesWorldwide…United States……..$16.1 billion$8.5 billion$1.7 billion$1.1 billion$5.27 billion71,66936,102Here’s a quick snapshot to give you an idea of the scope of 3M’s operations. We attribute our success to a strong focus on innovation— Novec 1230 fluid being just one example of the more than 500 new products 3M introduces every year. We spend about 7 percent of our sales -- more than $5 billion in the last five years -- on research and development. And we have nearly 70,000 employees, and 80 facilities around the world dedicated to research and development.
113M Brands3M owns many well-known and valuable brands, including Scotchgard, Thinsulate, Scotch-Brite, O-Cel-O and Post-It. The Novec brand fits will with 3M’s overall brand promise of Innovation.Our brands promise that every product we sell will be backed with 3M quality, service and value. And, as you will see later on in this presentation, we spend a lot of time and money to support those brands, working hard to let our customers know that we keep our promise.
123M Performance Materials Division Paints, Coatings,Construction & ConsumerOil, Gas & MiningNovec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid was developed by the 3M Performance Materials Division, whose products are derived from two core technologies: fluorochemicals and glass microspheres. The division is organized into market-focused teams, structured to provide integrated product solutions for specific market areas.ElectronicMaterials
13Government/ Transportation 3M Performance Materials DivisionGovernment/ TransportationPolymer Melt AdditivesCommercializationPolymer Melt Additives CommercializationTransportationBecause of the enormous potential 3M sees for Novec 1230 fluid, we have created a new team, devoted exclusively to developing the market for this important product.NEW 3M™ Novec™ Fire Protection Fluid
14General PropertiesNow that you have an idea of the people and the resources behind the Novec brand, let’s take a closer look at the technology itself…
15The “Next Generation” Halon Replacement Meeting industry concerns for safety, performance and the environmentZero Ozone Depletion PotentialVery low GWP / Short atmospheric lifetimeLow toxicityEffective for flooding & streamingSafe for sensitive, valuable assetsNovec 1230 fluid is a second-generation halon replacement. It was designed from the outset to meet the key industry concerns for safety, performance, and the environment.The material has zero ozone depletion potential, very low global warming potential, and a short atmospheric lifetime.It also demonstrates very low toxicity in both flooding and streaming applications.Finally, Novec 1230 fluid is ideal for use where you have very high-value, sensitive equipment to protect.
16The long-term, sustainable solution When you compare Novec 1230 fluid to previous clean agents, you’ll see there is a marked difference in their environmental properties. This slide shows the most critical environmental properties that the industry regulates.First and foremost, a material needs to be non-ozone depleting to be considered a viable halon replacement. Even the first generation of halon replacements met this criterion, but they didn’t address the second question: that they also be a minimum contributor to global warming.Looking at the global warming values of the HFCs compared to halons, they’re just as high or even higher—and persist in the atmosphere for many decades. Novec 1230 fluid, on the other hand, has a GWP of 1, and persists only for a few days—orders of magnitude difference.The challenge to the industry has been to find a product that can address both of these key environmental attributes. Novec 1230 fluid is one of the first materials to do that: to be an effective fire extinguishing agent that makes virtually no contribution to global warming. Novec 1230 has also been deemed acceptable by the U.S. EPA’s SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy). Novec 1230 fluid is currently permitted to be sold under SNAP, and is awaiting a final ruling from the U.S. EPA and publication in the U.S. Federal Register.
17Novec™ 1230 Fluid Safety Margin In addressing ODP and GWP, you want to make sure you’re not addressing one problem and inadvertently creating another problem. That’s why it’s important to look at a material’s safety margin.One of the ways of measuring the safety margin is by comparing the concentration at which an agent will be used to the level at which it starts to become toxic. This slide compares conventional clean agents and Novec 1230 at their No Observable Adverse Effects Levels.In the case of Halon, there was no safety margin. The first generation replacements give you a little—anywhere from 3 to 20 percent.Novec 1230 fluid, on the other hand, offers a very wide safety margin. That’s because its use concentration is comparable to halon—and yet its NOAEL is sometimes twice that of halon. Thus you have approximately a 67 to 150 percent safety margin. This is the widest level of any clean extinguishing agent available today.Naturally one has to take into account the thermal degradation products that evolve anytime there is a fire. Most releases of clean agents are the result of accidental discharge. It is this exposure to humans that is greatest concern when margins of safety are considered.
18Performance Tests NAWC China Lake, California USA Novec 1230 This brings us to the issue of extinguishing performance. This first video is of a test that was performed at the Naval Air War Center in China Lake. The test compares Novec 1230 fluid and HFC-236fa—a product that has gone through the necessary UL listings and met the requirements for commercialization in a portable extinguisher.The purpose of these Navy-run tests was to see if Novec 1230 fluid could perform in a manner similar to a product that had already gone through the necessary approvals.This test was conducted using JP8 fuel—which is basically diesel fuel—in a skin fire scenario typical of what you might see in the U.S. Navy. As you can see in this video, the U.S. Navy firefighter, who had never used the 3M product before, managed to extinguish the fire rather effectively with Novec 1230 fluid.HFC-236faHFC-236fa
19UL/FM Flooding Application Approval Tests This next example is a fire scenario used by approving authorities such as UL, Factory Mutual, and others. The test is performed inside a standardized one foot high under floor test enclosure. The nozzle that you see here is located in the center of the enclosure. A can fire, using heptane, is located at each corner of the enclosure, and also another one behind a baffle.Novec 1230 fluid is a liquid agent; but as you will see, once it begins flowing out of the nozzle, it gasifies quite nicely. Thus this test represents how, for the first time, we can take a liquid agent, gasify it, and use it as a flooding agent. The distance from the nozzle to the fire is approximately 22.5 feet.Under-floor
20UL/FM Flooding Application Approval Tests This is another fire test scenario, with a heptane pan fire inside a room-sized test enclosure. Again, you can see the liquid agent being discharged, then becoming a gas and you will see that the fire will be extinguished.This test simulates a worst-case scenario: maximum fill density; minimum nozzle pressure; minimum temperature conditioning for the cylinder; maximum pipe arrangement; maximum discharge time; minimum extinguishing concentration. Essentially it included everything that could work against the operating system. And we still extinguished the test fire effectively.Large Room
21Easy to fill, easy to transport Boiling point 49ºC room temp.)Can be shipped by airLow vapor pressureSimple fill station requirementsMultiple uses (includes streaming & flooding)There’s a distinct advantage in handling a liquid agent—one that isn’t pressurized and doesn’t have a fairly high vapor pressure at room temperature. Novec 1230 fluid has a boiling point of 49 degrees celsius. It can be shipped safely and effectively, without any regulations or restrictions, by air at a moment’s notice in bulk quantities. It has a low vapor pressure. It’s simple to handle in the shop: simply open a valve, pour the material into your container, and then shut the valve. Then, superpressurize the cylinder with nitrogen. That’s all there is to it.It can be used in streaming and flooding applications, localized flooding systems, directional spray type applications and so forth. But in addition to the conventional methods for superpressurization using nitrogen, Novec 1230 fluid also lends itself for use in pump applications—similar to the way you’d deliver water in a sprinkler system.
22Cylinders needed for typical Class A System Halon 1301HFC-227eaNovec 1230When you compare the number of cylinders typically required for a Class A system, Novec 1230 is very comparable to the halocarbons that are in the marketplace today in terms of storage space. Compared to halon 1301, the ratio is about 2 to 1—maybe a little bit more, maybe a little bit less, depending upon the application, and depending upon the fuel. So, it’s very effective and commercially-viable from that standpoint.
23Cylinders needed for typical Class B System Halon 1301HFC-227eaNovec 1230With Class B hazards, the ratio is about the same.
24Compatible with fire system materials Non-corrosiveLong term (12 week, six month) tests completeTesting with plastics in processNot for use with fluoroelastomersNovec 1230 fluid has been shown to be compatible with typical materials of construction used in fire suppression systems. The material is stable and essentially inert, meaning it does not react with system components. It’s also non-corrosive in its neat form. Long-term testing has demonstrated excellent compatibility with various elastomers used in o-rings, gaskets and other types of seals. However, we recommend that the product not be used with fluoroelastomers, because they are like materials with an affinity for each other and, therefore, incompatible.Tests have also shown that Novec 1230 fluid does not react with typical metals used in fire protection systems, including stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, brass and copper. We anticipate no problems with plastics, and will publish that information, once testing is completed.
25Compatible with fire system materials In fact, Novec 1230 fluid employs a technology similar to that of 3M fluorinated inert liquids, used by the electronics industry for over 40 years for full-immersion cooling and reliability testing, and more recently only in applications that are non-emissive.This photo shows how the circuitry inside this Cray super computer is immersed in 3M fluorinated liquids, to provide cooling during its operation.Cray super computer
26Regulatory StatusUSA TSCA registration complete SNAP: free to sell for streaming and flooding (Awaiting final publication)Europe ELINCS registeredCanada Notified to CEPA Q1/2002Korea RegisteredAustralia Estimated Q2/2002Japan Estimated Q4/2002China CompleteOf course, there are a lot of regulatory hurdles to overcome in order to bring a new halon replacement to market. That’s why I’m happy to report that Novec 1230 fluid has completed the necessary regulatory approvals in the United States. The product has been accepted under the U.S. EPA’s SNAP listing, and we are awaiting the final ruling and publication in the U.S. Federal Register. We also have ELINCS registration at this time, so we are free to sell Novec 1230 fluid in Europe. And you can see that other global approvals are in various stages of completion.
27Sales & Marketing Support Now let’s take a closer look at how 3M will be supporting system manufacturers in their marketing efforts for Novec 1230 fluid…
28Leveraging the 3M & Novec brands The 3M brand stands for…Innovative, quality products and services that make your life easier; a company you can trustThe Novec brand stands for…Safe, effective, sustainable, environmentally responsible solutionsAs I alluded to earlier, one of the key advantages 3M brings to the table is the power of its brands.Studies have shown that when people see the 3M brand on a product, they take it for granted that the product is high-quality, that it fills a real need and that 3M stands completely behind it.That is why any product that carries a well-known, well-respected brand is that much easier to sell…the customer already believes that it will provide certain benefits.For the past several years, 3M has also invested significant resources in promoting the Novec brand across a wide range of industries and applications. Only products that offer safe, effective, sustainable and environmentally responsible solutions…such as our new 1230 fire protection fluid…may carry the Novec brand.
293M™ Novec™ Branded Products General BrochureFor Novec 1230 fluid, we have chosen the theme line, “Created for Life.” The word “life” helps connect all the key product benefits, implying protection of human life and safety; a healthy environment; the life of your valuable equipment; and a long-lived, sustainable fire protection solution.The new graphic treatment for Novec 1230 fluid is a visual representation of what the product is and what it does: a fluid overcoming a fire. This treatment is designed to stand out among competitive products, using lots of curves and open white space to make a bold and contemporary statement.
303M™ Novec™ Branded Products As we see on one of the inside spreads of the new general brochure, visuals are dramatic, driving home the key messages in a very visceral and memorable way.
313M™ Novec™ Branded Products Sales BulletinThis graphic treatment was designed to be adaptable for use in a wide variety of formats and applications, including printed materials, presentations and electronic media.
323M™ Novec™ Branded Products Public RelationsTo help keep the Novec 1230 fluid message fresh and constantly in the public eye, we are committed to an aggressive public relations campaign, providing news releases and feature stories to all the major fire protection trade publications.
333M™ Novec™ Branded Products Technical PapersSupporting materials such as technical papers are a key element for building credibility. Several papers on various aspects of Novec 1230 fluid have already been published, and more are in the pipeline.
343M™ Novec™ Branded Products Trade AdAs mentioned earlier, building awareness and preference for the 3M and Novec brands helps to move the selling process beyond a simple technical discussion of boiling points and NOAELs to a higher level. Here we see our new brand ad for Novec 1230 fluid, which will appear in North American trade publications starting in April and May of 2002 and outside the U.S. as the year progresses.In its main visual, the ad uses an emotional appeal of a father returning home to his family. The father, a fire protection engineer, feels the satisfaction of having done something that day to protect his son and his employer because he chose a fire protection system incorporating Novec 1230 fluid.The key messages of this ad reflect the key concerns of fire protection engineers 3M has surveyed as part of our market research efforts: Safety of your people; low impact on the environment; regulatory compliance, both now and for the forseeable future; protection of valuable equipment; competitive cost.
353M™ Novec™ Branded Products Electronic NewsletterAs part of this comprehensive promotional effort, we are also taking advantage of some of the new electronic tools that have become available in recent years. For example, we recently launched an electronic newsletter (residing on the Novec 1230 fluid website) called “NewsBytes.” Whenever a new story is posted to the newsletter, notices are sent via to a list of fire protection professionals.
36Focus Group Research Participants Oct. 19, 2001Loss Prevention SpecialistInsurance AdministratorFacilities ManagerVP of Worldwide OperationsFacilities & Business Contract ManagerChief Building EngineerFire Protection EngineerSecurity & Safety ManagerOthersAs I mentioned a moment ago, 3M sponsored two focus group studies last fall to get a better understanding of the attitudes and concerns of professionals involved in specifying, qualifying and operating fire protection systems. Here we see a list of the job functions of the various participants.These were blind studies, conducted by a third party research firm. What follows are some verbatim comments from the participants, selected from transcripts of the two sessions.
37Typical Comments On the value of the environmental benefits: “Even if (the system) was a little more expensive, it would be acceptable, just because of the environmental issues.”“From a PR standpoint, anything we can do to demonstrate that we are a ‘green’ company is helpful.”Because a big part of the Novec 1230 fluid story is the product’s environmental advantages, we wanted to learn how big a role environmental considerations play in selecting a fire protection system. What we learned is that people are willing to pay more for a product that is environmentally responsible, as long as their other criteria are met.
38Typical Comments Will the 3M Brand help sell the system? “Yes…you want to know when you call for service, the company will be there; that they’re responsive; that they’ll back the product.”“And, is this company going to be around 10 years from now?”We also learned that the 3M brand has strong credibility and perceived value in this marketplace, lending assurance of dependable technical and customer support for the life of their system.
39Typical Comments On the properties of Novec 1230: “Very good…cylinder space is the same as FM-200, instead of over 7 times as much, as inert gas is. Design concentration about 5% and toxicity is 10%. That’s very good.”“Low design concentration is nice. You almost have a two times safety factor.”Without revealing the manufacturer’s name, we provided participants with a comparison of the properties of Novec 1230 fluid versus several competitive products. In most cases, participants quickly grasped the key advantages of Novec 1230 fluid, without prompting from the moderator.
40Typical Comments How interested are you in learning more? “On a scale of 1 to 10, I’d definitely say 10.”“It sounds very compelling. Now show me the numbers.”“I’ll probably be contacting my research scientists tomorrow to look into this.”After reviewing the properties of Novec 1230 fluid, participants were almost unanimously interested in learning more.
41Typical Comments On sustainability: “One of the issues is…you may have an agent that’s legal today, but 10 years from now it might not be.”Sustainability of an agent was a key concern among the participants. Most would be reluctant to make a change, without some assurance that the agent is not headed for phaseout down the road.
42Typical Comments On priorities when selecting a system: “Protecting assets and our employees. Those are paramount.”First and foremost among the participants’ considerations, however, is the safety of their people and the assets being protected. Fortunately, these are also two of the major benefits of Novec 1230 fluid.
43Telling the environmental story It was out of concern for the environment that halons were originally banned, creating the market for today’s clean agent replacement products. That’s why it’s important to have a clear understanding of the environmental properties and advantages being offered by new Novec 1230 fluid.
44Environmental Properties Zero Ozone Depletion PotentialAtmospheric lifetime of 5 daysGlobal Warming Potential of 1 (100 year ITH)Ultimate Environmental Degradation Products are CO2, HF and TFALike all halon replacements, Novec 1230 fluid has zero ozone depletion potential, solving the original problem created by halon.What is unique about this new-to-the-world fluorochemical, however, is that it has a five-day atmospheric lifetime and a global warming potential of 1…far lower than conventional halocarbon clean agents.This material breaks down into very small molecules. These are carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)—resulting in products that are already ubiquitous throughout the environment.
45Fluorochemicals & the environment EnvironmentalPersistenceCl + O3Atm. Lifetime +IR AbsorbanceClimate ChangeOzone DepletionThe general disadvantages of fluorochemicals in the atmosphere are well known. Ozone depletion is of course the first issue that forced the fire industry to look for alternatives to halon; climate change is the next, which is a combination of significant residence time in the atmosphere and the ability of organic compounds to absorb infrared energy. And, more recently, there has been the more general issue of environmental persistence. People are uncomfortable with things that stay in the atmosphere for decades or even centuries before they’re finally removed
46Fluorochemicals containing Cl or Br Potential contributors to ozone depletionR-Cl + hn R • Cl •(l<260 nm)O Cl • ClO • + O2O hn O O2(l<1140 nm)ClO • + O Cl • O2Fluorochemicals containing chlorine or bromine convert ozone into oxygen through a catalytic process. When a compound brings chlorine into the stratosphere, ultraviolet light degrades the molecule, and as a result chlorine splits off to react with O3 (ozone). The end result is that two ozone molecules get converted to three regular oxygen (O2) molecules.The original Chlorine atom is then freed up and the reaction begins again. There have been estimates that one Chlorine atom freed in the stratosphere can destroy as many as 10,000 ozone molecules. Bromine, found in halons, is an even more efficient catalyst, and can destroy 10 times as much ozone as chlorine-containing compounds.In contrast to chlorine and bromine, Fluorine has been shown to be benign toward stratospheric ozone. So as far as atmospheric scientists are concerned, Fluorine does not affect the ozone layer.F has a catalytic efficiency <10-4 that of Cl (<10-5 Br)Compounds containing only F are considered non-ozone depletingNovec 1230 fluid is non-ozone depleting
47Atmospheric Residence Time Controlling FactorsOxidation Reactivity with Hydroxyl Radical Novec 1230 fluid is unreactive w/ •OHRain Out Water SolubilityNovec 1230 fluid is water insoluble (~1 ppmw)Photolysis UV Absorbance Novec 1230 fluid has strong absorbance in the near UVAs we’ve discussed, atmospheric residence time is a contributing factor in global warming. This slide shows three of the most common mechanisms that remove organic compounds from the atmosphere. The most common is oxidation—a reaction with hydroxyl radicals. Oxidation is the predominant way in which competitive products are removed from the atmosphere—all the HFC-type compounds. As it turns out, however, Novec 1230 fluid is completely unaffected by reaction with OH. So that is not an effective removal method for Novec 1230 fluid.Another way to get chemicals out of the atmosphere is to scrub them out with precipitation. In order for that to happen, a chemical has to be fairly soluble in water. Novec 1230 fluid is about as insoluble in water as you can get, about 1 part per million by weight (ppmw). As a result, rainout is not an effective removal mechanism.The method that isn’t often considered with fluorochemicals turns out to be the most important. And that’s photolysis. The chemical structure of Novec 1230 fluid results in absorbance of ultraviolet light in much higher wavelengths than you normally find for most fluorochemicals or for halons and HFCs. Halons and HFCs absorb light at much lower wavelengths, so for photolysis to be an effective removal method for them, they’d have to be transferred much higher into the atmosphere where they can see higher energy radiation. And that takes a long time. But Novec 1230 fluid absorbs at the kind of energy that reaches the Earth’s surface. So photolysis occurs almost as soon as it’s released.
48UV Absorbance Novec 1230 fluid vs. non-fluorinated ketones Acetone is the most common ketone, although it is non-fluorinated. So when we wanted to find out why Novec 1230 fluid was absorbing UV light so well, we compared the two. This graph shows that acetone absorbs UV light most efficiently at a frequency of about 275 nanometers. Novec 1230 fluid actually shifts the absorbance spectrum to even higher levels, with a maximum absorbance at about 310. Competitive compounds, like halon and HFCs, have no absorbance in this range. Their absorbance starts down around 200 nanometers and lower.
49Penetration of Solar Radiation Here you can see to what altitude wavelengths of light penetrate into the atmosphere. So if you want to find light at 100 nanometers traveling from the sun, you’d have to travel almost 130 km up, because the atmosphere effectively filters out these wavelengths on their way to the surface. It starts by filtering out the lowest wavelength light, which is the highest energy, and what gets through is higher and higher. Off our scale, to the right, is visible light, which of course reaches ground level. So in our troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, you’re getting light around 300 nm, which turns out to be almost exactly where the maximum absorbance is for Novec 1230 fluid. Once you release this material in the lower atmosphere, it’s going to see exactly the radiation it needs to break down. That’s what gives it such a short lifetime.
50UV Absorbance Novec 1230 fluid compared to various light sources Having determined how Novec 1230 fluid reacts to UV light, we wanted to allay peoples’ concerns about it in relation to other light sources—that if I open up a container inside it won’t immediately start breaking down.So measuring with all the same instruments, we’ve put together this graph. Fluorescent light puts out energy at these wavelengths, which is nowhere near where Novec 1230 fluid absorbs UV radiation. The green line shows the incandescent bulb; there may be a slight overlap in the absorbance spectrum, but by and large it will not affect it. The next measurement is natural sunlight coming through a glass window. There is some overlap with this. So if you left it in a clear bottle next to the window with sunlight hitting it, you might see some slow degradation over time. A metal container, closed up, however, would not be affected.And, finally, direct outdoor sunlight (in orange) falls directly on top of Novec 1230 fluid’s spectrum—almost to the maximum. This is at ground level; you can imagine you don’t have to go very far up in the atmosphere at all to get right to the maximum absorbance of Novec 1230 fluid. This is the property that gives this product such good environmental characteristics. It absorbs at such a high wavelength that it readily breaks down.
51Equivalent to approximately 3 days of natural Photolysis of Novec 1230 fluidC2F5C(O)CF(CF3)224 hours exposure to 6500W Xenon Arc using borosilicate glass filter (Artificial sunlight via ASTM G26 light source)Equivalent to approximately 3 days of naturalsunlight69 % decomposedA few experiments that we have done have confirmed this result. This experiment was conducted with an artificial light source and is meant to simulate sunlight as closely as possible. The experiment is run to determine the weathering of various polymers and is a fairly common procedure.In an exposure that would have been equivalent to about three days of natural sunlight in Arizona, 69% of Novec 1230 fluid decomposed. So this first procedure indicated that the theory was on track and that Novec 1230 fluid only requires a matter of days to decompose.
52Photolysis of Novec 1230 fluid C2F5C(O)CF(CF3)2Relative rate experimentsusing Xenon UV lamp with lime glass filterAcetaldehyde, which has5 day atmospheric lifetimevia photolysis used asreferencePhotodissociation rate ofNovec 1230 fluid comparable to AcetaldehydeAtmospheric Lifetime of Novec 1230 fluid is 5 daysWe also conducted relative rate experiments in a much more controlled environment where we put Novec 1230 fluid in a chamber and exposed it to ultraviolet light. In this case, Novec 1230 fluid is the unknown. We chose acetaldehyde as the reference compound because it has a well-documented UV absorbance spectrum, and it was known that, based on this spectrum, its lifetime by photolysis in the atmosphere was about five days.So we did a series of experiments: each compound independently in the chamber; both in the chamber at the same time. We exposed it to the same light sources and as a result we found that they decomposed at about the same rate. Which means that Novec 1230 fluid has an atmospheric lifetime of about five days.This was confirmation of what was predicted theoretically and clearly addresses the issue of environmental persistence in the atmosphere.
53Infrared Cross-Section of Novec 1230 fluid The question of global warming potential is largely affected by the atmospheric lifetime. GWP is based on a combination of atmospheric residence time—which we know is very short for Novec 1230 fluid—and on infrared absorbance. Novec 1230 fluid already has one factor in its favor, but, even with that, if it could absorb enormous amounts of energy, it still could potentially contribute to global warming. So this slide shows where, in the IR spectrum, Novec 1230 fluid does absorb energy, and its intensity. Incidentally, this graph is pretty typical of a fluorochemical. So taking this information and the atmospheric residence time we can calculate the global warming potential.
54Results for Novec 1230 fluid Global Warming Potential (GWP)Calculated using WMO 1998 methodBasis of 1 kg of compound x releasedCalculated over a specified integration time horizon (ITH)Result is equivalent number of kg of CO2 releasedResults for Novec 1230 fluid20 yr ITH 100 yr ITH 500 yr ITHGWPGlobal Warming Potential is calculated used the WMO 1998 method. The equation is used to determine how many kilograms of CO2—the world’s most common greenhouse gas—would be equivalent to the release of one kilogram of another compound that can also act as a greenhouse gas .This equation shows the ratio of how much energy a new, unknown compound is going to be absorbing versus how much is being absorbed by CO2. The equation is integrated over a certain time frame—the most commonly accepted time frame being 100 years. And when you do that, Novec 1230 fluid has a GWP of 1. Which means over 100 years, one kilogram of Novec 1230 fluid won’t affect global warming any more than one kilogram of CO2 would. That is virtually unprecedented for a fluorochemical.
55GWP of Various Compounds GWP (100 Yr ITH)CO21N2O296CH423CF3CH2F (HFC-134a)1,300CF3CFHCF3 (HFC-227ea)3,500CF3H (HFC-23)12,000C2F611,900C3F8, C4F10, C6F148, ,000SF622,200C4F9OCH3 (HFE-7100)320C4F9OC2H5 (HFE-7200)55C2F5C(O)CF(CF3)2Naturally occurring compoundsHFCsPFCsMost fluorochemicals have a significantly higher GWPs because fluorochemicals are very efficient energy absorbers. They tend to absorb energy in the atmosphere where no other compounds do—at wavelengths that normally pass unhindered through the atmosphere. They also typically have longer atmospheric lifetimes which greatly affects global warming potential.This chart shows the GWP of various compounds. Naturally occurring materials like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane have GWPs from 1 to about 300. The first generation of halon replacements—HFCs—have GWPs from the thousands to the tens of thousands. Other materials produced as potential replacements were perfluorocarbons, PFCs. Again, they have GWPs in the thousands. The highest global warming potential known is for a material called sulfur hexafluoride which has a GWP of 22,200.One of the first of 3M’s new generation of replacements for ozone-depleting compounds was hydrofluoroethers, which also go by the Novec brand name. These materials have GWPs that start to get down to the level of naturally occurring compounds. What’s even more outstanding with Novec 1230 fluid is now you’re in the range of CO2: 1.HFEsNovec 1230 fluid
56Atmospheric Degradation Pathways Novec 1230 fluidC2F5C(O)CF(CF3)2(lmax=306nm)hn (days)• C2F5C(O) • CF(CF3)2O2O2(ms to weeks)3CO HFCF3• CF3CF(O)This is an extremely simplified version of the atmospheric degradation pathway. There are a series of one of more arrows to signify that there are actually multiple steps occurring here. Once Novec 1230 fluid absorbs UV radiation, it splits into two fragments of radicals. A series of steps then breaks off the carbons. So it will break down to carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride. There is also the possibility that it will stop at a two carbon molecule and become trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). TFA has not been found to be toxic, although it is persistent. It is in the environment in quite large quantities from unknown sources. There have been questions about whether or not there are natural sources because there is so much of it. Novec 1230 fluid, therefore, will not add anything new to the environment.H2OCF3COOH HFCO HF
57Environmental Footprint Comparison Halogenated CompoundsHFC-236fa10000900080007000600050004000300020001000halon 1301Global Warming PotentialHFC- 227eahalon 1211This table pulls together the three most important environmental attributes and puts them on one graph: Ozone depletion potential, Global warming potential, and atmospheric lifetime.If you want to have as small an environmental footprint as possible left by this material, then you want to be a dot at the origin of this graph.We are pointing to Novec 1230 fluid in this graph; there is a circle here, but it’s just so small you can’t see it.Novec 1230Ozone Depletion PotentialArea of the circle is proportional to the atmospheric lifetime of the compound.
58System Design Considerations Now I’d like to touch on some of the physical attributes that make Novec 1230 fluid easy to incorporate into system designs.
59Typical Physical Properties Chemical formulaCF3CF2C(O)CF(CF3)2Molecular weight316.04Boiling 1 atm49ºC (120.2º F)Freezing point-108ºC (-162.4ºF)Density, sat. 25ºC1.60 g/ml (99.9 lbm/ft3)Density, gas 1 25ºCg/ml (1.15 lbm/ft3)Specific volume, 1 25ºCm3/kg (0.870 ft3/lb)Liquid 25ºC0.41/0.56 centistokesHeat of BP88.1 kJ/kg (37.9 BTU/lb)Solubility of H20 in Novec 25ºC<0.001% by wt.Vapor 25ºC0.40 bar (5.87 psig)Dielectric strength (dry conditions)~60kVNovec 1230 fluid is a high molecular weight material, compared with the first generation halocarbon products. It is also a liquid at room temperature. I’d like to point out to you the density of the saturated liquid is 1.6 times that of water—very comparable to other replacement products.It also has a heat of vaporization of 88.1 kJ/kg and a fairly low vapor pressure. When you superpressurize a material with nitrogen, you can deliver it quite effectively out of a system. The heat of vaporization is a key item here.People wonder, “How can you take a liquid and make it a gas? You just can’t do that.” The key is the material’s low heat of vaporization. Water, for example, has a high heat of vaporization, so you would need hundreds of kilojoules per kilogram to gasify it—although if you did, it is an extremely effective extinguishing agent. With Novec 1230 fluid, however, a properly designed system will utilize its relatively low heat of vaporization to deliver the agent into the enclosure and allow it to quickly gasify, distribute throughout the protected space, and extinguish fires effectively.
60Novec 1230 fluid is compatible with normal materials of construction Elastomer CompatibilityThis chart shows the elastomer compatibility of Novec 1230 fluid. We've done the necessary testing at ambient temperatures, at elevated temperatures for short duration, and now for long duration. The material is very similar to other stable fluoro-inert compounds that have been used in the past and is not generally reactive with or damaging to existing materials of construction like o-rings or seals.Novec 1230 fluid is compatible with normal materials of construction
61Metals Compatibility Effects of Boiling C6 F-ketone on Various Metals Product C6 F-ketoneBoiling Point (49°C)Metals (10 days minimum exposure)Aluminum Alloy 6262 T6511 A*Brass Alloy UNS C36000 AAISI Type 304L stainless steel AAISI Type 316L stainless steel ACopper UNS C12200 AASTM A 516, Grade 70 carbon steel A* A= no discoloration or destruction of fluid or metal at temperature indicatedNovec 1230 fluid has excellent metals compatibility—there are virtually no incompatibilities with common metals.
623M Fire Test Facility, Mendota Heights MN Standard UL/FM ISO Test EnclosuresIn order to qualify Novec 1230 fluid, you need standardized enclosures to perform the tests necessary for listings and approvals by the recognized testing laboratories. This shot is of our test facilities at 3M. We have a standard 100 cubic meter enclosure for fire and high ceiling nozzle verification distribution tests. And we also have a 1’0” underfloor test enclosure. With this equipment we’ve performed hundreds of tests to date using Novec 1230 fluid in a variety of configurations, fill densities, nozzle pressures and nozzle arrangements.3M Fire Test Facility, Mendota Heights MN
63…Yes! Flooding Opportunity Can Novec 1230 fluid be made to flood? The answer is…So can Novec 1230 fluid be made to flood? The answer, as we have proven over and over again in these standardized tests, is a definitive yes.…Yes!
643M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Protection Fluid Design parameters expected to be achievedMax fill density >1.0kg/l (61lb/ft3)Min nozzle pressure < 7 bar (100psig)Max discharge Standard UL 10 secMin temperature condition 0º C (32º F)Min extinguishing concentration 4-6% v/vYou could reasonably expect to have a maximum fill density somewhere greater than 1 kilogram per liter (61 lb/ft3). You could also have your nozzle pressure somewhere less than 7 bar (100 psi)—minimum average nozzle pressure. Maximum discharge, is set by the standardsfor halocarbon agents at 10 seconds. The minimum temperature condition has been validated to at least 0 degrees Celsius for test conditions included in the standard test scenarios. And the minimum extinguishing concentration is more or less set as measured by the cupburner for n-heptane at 4.2% by volume, to be verified by an independent third party, which we’re working on that at this time.
65Packaging 5kg (11 lb) 1 gal glass jug 160kg (353 lb) 30 gal lined drum 1,200kg ( lb) 220 gal HDPE ICB18,000kg (39,600 lb) ISO (Future)We have three packaging options available at this time: a 5 kg sample glass jug that’s shipped in a box, a 160 kg 30-gallon poly-lined drum and a 1200 kg high-density polyethylene intermediate bulk container. In the future, as demand increases, Novec 1230 fluid will be available in 18-ton ISO containers.
66Sustainable Technology For special hazardsAddresses environmental concerns: Zero ODP, GWP of 1, Atmospheric Lifetime of 5 daysSafe for people—up to 150% margin of safetyFast, effective extinguishment for flooding and streamingAllows efficient use of spaceEasy to handle: compact, low-pressure, easily transportableGlobal regulatory approvalsLeverages the power of the 3M and Novec brands3M technical and marketing supportTo recap, Novec 1230 fluid has been shown to address all the key considerations for special hazard fire protection. On the environmental side, it has zero ozone depletion potential and a global warming potential and atmospheric lifetime on the order of naturally-occurring compounds. It is safe for people. That’s very, very important for use in occupied spaces. If you are selling inert gases, selling Novec 1230 fluid would be sending a complementary message to the marketplace.The product has been shown to be effective in extinguishing fires in both flooding and streaming applications. It allows for more efficient use of space, as compared to inert gases, and is very comparable to existing halocarbon agents out there. And its high boiling liquid agent properties allows for easy handling in the shop, at the job site, filling cylinders and so forth.We have global regulatory approvals in place for the initial markets in which we are focusing and the remainder of the key regulatory approvals are forthcoming. And, the power of both the 3M and the Novec brands can help pull through sales for your company, with 3M technical and marketing support to assist you in that regard.
68Henry’s Constant (HA) = [A(aq)] / pA Gas/Aqueous-PhaseDistribution in the AtmosphereA(g) A(aq)Henry’s Constant (HA) = [A(aq)] / pAFor compounds with HA < 400 M/atm, < 1% dissolve into aqueous phaseA significant fraction of a compound ( > 10%) partitions into the aqueous phase only if HA > 5000 M/atmHA of Novec 1230 fluid ~ 8x10-6 M/atmAs a result, rainout is not a significant removal mechanism for Novec 1230 fluidIf you try to distribute a molecule between a gas phase and a liquid water phase in the atmosphere—in water droplets in a cloud, for instance—the controlling factor is something called Henry’s law which is a correlation that shows that the distribution of a chemical between the gas phase and the liquid water phase is affected by certain physical properties of that chemical: vapor pressure, volatility, and water solubility.The more volatile and less water soluble, the more a compound wants to be in the gas phase and the less volatile and more water soluble, the more it wants to be in the water phase. Scientists have determined, from looking at a wide variety of species in the atmosphere, that a Henry’s Law Constant less than 400 molar per atmosphere means less than 1% dissolves in the water phase. To really get a significant amount to go into the water phase you need a Henry’s Constant greater than 5000 molar per atmosphere. The Henry’s Constant of Novec 1230 is 8x10-6, several orders of magnitude below the criterion that’s been established. As a result, we don’t believe that Novec 1230 will partition in any measurable degree into water through rainout.