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Halon Replacement for Airplane Cargo Compartments What it Takes Fourth Triennial International Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon, Portugal.

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Presentation on theme: "Halon Replacement for Airplane Cargo Compartments What it Takes Fourth Triennial International Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon, Portugal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Halon Replacement for Airplane Cargo Compartments What it Takes Fourth Triennial International Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon, Portugal November 17, 2004 Daniel Lewinski The Boeing Company

2 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Objective Objective Overview Overview Typical Halon System Typical Halon System Strategies Strategies Alternative Agent/System Summary Alternative Agent/System Summary Requirements Requirements –Agent –Regulatory –System –Component –Maintenance Conclusion Conclusion

3 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Objective: Objective: Provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges for installing and certifying a safe, reliable, and economic cargo fire suppression system onto a large commercial airplane.

4 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Overview Halon Production Ceased in 1994 Halon Production Ceased in 1994 Critical Use Exemption only for Halon use Critical Use Exemption only for Halon use Technical and Regulatory Challenges for finding cargo fire suppression replacement agent. Technical and Regulatory Challenges for finding cargo fire suppression replacement agent. –Agent Performance –Regulatory Requirements –System Design and Performance

5 Cargo Fire Suppression Typical Airplane Cargo Fire Suppression System

6 Cargo Fire Suppression System Requirements Typical Decay Analysis

7 Halon Replacement Strategy for Cargo Fire Suppression Systems Drop-in Replacement Drop-in Replacement Phased Development with Agent and Systems Manufacturers Phased Development with Agent and Systems Manufacturers

8 Phase 1 - Request for Industry Proposals on Halon Replacement Agents for Airplane Fire Protection Systems Phase 2 - Request for Industry Proposals on How a Halon Replacement Agent and System would be installed onto an airplane. Phase 3 - Request for Industry to show agents would extinguish cargo fire threats through proof-of-concept tests. Phased Request for Information from Industry on Halon Replacement

9 Table 1 - Cargo Fire Suppression - Halon Alternatives Agent Type MPS Status Technical Issues Table 1 - Cargo Fire Suppression - Halon Alternatives Agent Type MPS Status Technical Issues Halon 1301 Gas Baseline High Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). Production Ceased. Agent A Solid Aerosol Not tested Failed corrosion testing. High temperature discharge onto cargo. Light residue requiring clean-up. Less weight than Halon. Agent B Solid Aerosol Not tested Failed corrosion testing. Less weight than Halon. Light residue requiring clean-up. Agent/System C Water mist/ nitrogen Passed MPS Complex temperature feedback system. MPS used long version of aerosol can test – Boeing accepts only short version of test. Development of new delivery system. Approximately 3 times weight of Halon system with temp feedback system, approximately 4+ times weight of Halon system with programmed discharge. Low temperature discharge issues. Agent/System D Water mist/ nitrogen Not tested Agent E Gas Not tested HCFCs may be banned soon. High Global Warming Potential (GWP). 4 times weight of Halon system.

10 Table 1 - Cargo Fire Suppression - Halon Alternatives Agent Type MPS Status Technical Issues Table 1 - Cargo Fire Suppression - Halon Alternatives Agent Type MPS Status Technical Issues Agent F Gas Not tested Tests demonstrate significant weight penalty (2x weight had no effect on fire). 4 times weight of Halon system. Agent G Gas (liquid at room temp – but vaporizes quickly) Failed Preliminary MPS Tests Failed Aerosol Can Explosion Test. Approx times the weight of a Halon 1301 system. Agent H Foam Not tested Clean-up required. Low Temp Discharge not demonstrated. More than 10 times the weight of Halon. HFC-125 Gas MPS Tests Suspended Lots of HF gas generated during fire suppression. At lower concentrations, acted as fuel for fire. High GWP. Approximately 4 times weight of Halon CF3I Gas Not tested Minor corrosion concerns as gas. ODP at altitude. Cold temperature not as effective. Toxic after combustion at 2 ppm.

11 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Agent Requirements Minimum Performance StandardMinimum Performance Standard –Bulk-Load Fire –Containerized Fire –Surface Burning Fire –Aerosol Can Explosion Short Version Short Version Long Version Long Version

12 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Agent Requirements SNAP Approved SNAP Approved Corrosion Resistant Corrosion Resistant Health and Safety Health and Safety –Toxicity –Other

13 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Regulatory Requirements FARs, JARs, and Certification Specifications FARs, JARs, and Certification Specifications –Specific Regulations FAR/JAR/CS – System will be sized appropriately FAR/JAR/CS – System will be sized appropriately FAR/JAR/CS – Flight Tests to Show Performance FAR/JAR/CS – Flight Tests to Show Performance FAR/JAR/CS – Approved Fire Suppression System FAR/JAR/CS – Approved Fire Suppression System –Other Non – System Specific Regulations –Advisory Circulars AC A – Systems Design AC A – Systems Design AC A - ETOPS AC A - ETOPS

14 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement System Requirements A Cargo Fire Suppression System Must A Cargo Fire Suppression System Must –Provide a specific extinguishing agent quantity discharge for knockdown capability –Provide a minimum extinguishing agent concentration for a specified duration –Perform within parameters when exposed to life cycle and fatigue testing –Distribute agent within a cargo compartment –Control particle size distribution of a non-gaseous agent

15 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement System Requirements System Test Demonstrations System Test Demonstrations Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Safety Analysis Safety Analysis Catastrophic Fire is Extremely Improbable Flight Test Demonstrations Flight Test Demonstrations Component Qualifications Component Qualifications

16 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Component Requirements Environmental RequirementsEnvironmental Requirements –Operating and Non-operating Environment Temperature Limits Low temperature: survival (non-operating) Low temperature: survival (non-operating) - 55 o C - 55 o C Low temperature: short-term operation Low temperature: short-term operation - 40 o C - 40 o C Low temperature: continuous operation Low temperature: continuous operation - 15 o C - 15 o C High temperature: survival (non-operating) High temperature: survival (non-operating) 85 o C 85 o C High temperature: continuous operation High temperature: continuous operation 70 o C 70 o C

17 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Component Requirements Pressure Altitude Requirements Pressure Altitude Requirements Structural Structural –Shock and Handling –Vibration Electrical Electrical –AC/DC Power Characteristics –Steady State and Transient Characteristics –Voltage Transients and Spikes –Electromagnetic Induction –Et al

18 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Component Requirements BIT (Built In Test) BIT (Built In Test) Software Software Component Reliability Component Reliability

19 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Maintenance Requirements No predetermined (scheduled) maintenance intervals on components. No predetermined (scheduled) maintenance intervals on components. No piece parts or assemblies with definite life limits. No piece parts or assemblies with definite life limits. No on-airplane adjustments. No on-airplane adjustments. No more than one mechanic for on-airplane maintenance and servicing. No more than one mechanic for on-airplane maintenance and servicing. Only "common" tools for on-airplane maintenance. Only "common" tools for on-airplane maintenance.

20 Cargo Fire Suppression Halon Replacement Conclusion Identified Alternate Agents Need Development Identified Alternate Agents Need Development Solution Requires Concerted Effort by Solution Requires Concerted Effort by –Regulatory Agencies –Agent Manufacturers –System Manufacturers –Airplane Manufacturers

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