Global, Snow and Ice (UK Met Office) Modelling of ice edge /extent is not reliable. Effects of varying ice edge on ocean winds and currents could be significant (studies at UCL)
SCHEMATIC OF CLIMATE CHANGE PROCESSES-note geographic var’n Less snow/ice -> more volcanoes? More convection in moister atmosphere
(i)Buoyancy + upslope (L s ) upslope turn right (ii) Triggers convective upwind flow (Note L u L uc + L s ; > 3*10 3 km) L u as N, h ; H (Climate; Aerosol; QBO?) Ls as H (Geology) uusualuusual usus Usual -> Unusual _UPSLOPE Deeper convection?
1. Regimes CASSOU & GULYARDI 2007 CLIMATE PATTERNS CHANGE WITH GLOBAL WARMING EXTENDED STAGNANT AIR
Asymmetric dishpan experiment-what does el nino do to global circulations? ASU (HpPeng)
DRAG OF URBAN AREA –ALSO TURNS WIND -WEAK BUOYANCY FORCES BELOW INVERSION LAYER. NOTE DOWNWIND WAKE SCALE LR-EXTENDS OVER 10LR – (J.Chan HK) 500KM DOWNWIND OF MEGACITIES (J CHAN..) ; (RIGHT DEFLN IF STRONG CONVECTION OVER CITY AND LOW WIND)
STERN GLOBAL REVIEW _NOT VALID AFTER COP15? NEW IDEAS FOR 2010----?
20002100 Normal Econ Dev. Sustainable development (.)' RANGES OF LIKELY EMISSIONS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF COUNTRY Normal Economic Development or with sustainable development policies ILPG – Industrialized low pop. Growth (EU; Japan) IHPG – Industrialized High pop. Growth (USA) DRI – Developing- rapid industrialization- limited pop. Growth (China) DRI(LA) – DRI plus large agricultural sector – high pop. Growth (India) -> DIFFERENT LEGISLATION FOR EACH REGION/COUNTRY- AFTER CANCUN.
Fusion ResearchHybrid Fusion- Fission? Hybrid FF Efficient use of uranium/ thorium resources - no long term radioactive waste (100 yrs)? China – pilot project 2020? No plans for Europe? TOKAMAK Fusion Device OR MORE WIND ENERGY?
Policy Issues -Note International trend for national/regional policies on emissions/ conservation -UNFCC/IPCC role is now monitoring, comparing, and predicting -Need for International cooperation (including UN ) +ASIAN CLIMATE NETWORK? *science, (monitoring ;modelling tropical/polar /terrestial effects on cc) technology-Clean Energy, water; deforestation; bioreactors Finance-Clean Development Mechanism; clean /green trading /pricing Governance- national/(regional?)climate legislation Cultural, Communications-eg water recycling, waste energy; low energy food; life styles.
SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH INTEGRATION BY GOVERNMENTS, COMMUNITIES, INDIVIDUALS IN DIFFERENT GLOBAL REGIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SOCIAL, SECURITY POLICIES ?, Note advantages – economy (eg adaptation (flooding)and mitigation (clean energy) - public understanding/acceptance (with leadership) Note problems – short term costs versus long term advantages. (reF JH. Proc Inst Civ Engrs uk 2009)
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