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By Brian Bell. What is Artificial Intelligence?  The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was coined by John McCarthy in 1956  As a Noun  The Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "By Brian Bell. What is Artificial Intelligence?  The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was coined by John McCarthy in 1956  As a Noun  The Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Brian Bell

2 What is Artificial Intelligence?  The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was coined by John McCarthy in 1956  As a Noun  The Intelligence of Machines.  As a Field  “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”

3 How does AI apply to games?

4 Overview  Step through the History of Video Games  Highlight certain AI techniques and trends  Go over some of the pitfalls of modern AI development in the Video Game Industry

5 Pong  One of the First Video Games  Manufactured by Atari  Released in 1972  Designed for 1 or 2 players.  Essentially just table tennis in 2 dimensions.

6 The AI of Pong  There is Logic to how the Computer moves the paddle.  The computer predicts where the ball with end up based on a number of factors then moves the paddle to that predicted location.  To simulate Human error the computer is designed to skip its adjustment every 8 frames.

7 Pac-Man  Developed by Namco  Distributed by Midway (in US)  Released: 1980  Single player only  Simple maze game

8 Ghosts  While the Ghosts appear to move in a random order this is not always the case. As each Ghost has its own Algorithm to control its actions. Chases Pac-Man Try to get in front of Pac-Man Moves at Random*

9 Super Mario Bros.  Developed by Nintendo  Released in 1985  Classic example of the Platformer

10 Scripted AI  Enemy units in the game are designed to follow a scripted pattern.  Either move back and forth in a given location or attack a player if nearby  Became a staple technique for AI design.


12 Sim City  Developed by Maxis  Published by Electronic Arts  Released in 1989  First in a series of Simulation Games which are often at the forefront of AI technology

13 A Living World  The player is able to manipulate certain aspects of the city.  The population of the City acts somewhat autonomously.  Furthermore the game will simulate random disasters.

14 The Sims  Developed by Maxis  Published by Electronic Arts  Released in 2000  A life simulation game in which the player has control over a semi- autonomous people.

15 Complex characters  The Sims characters can be manipulated by the player but will also carry out day to day tasks on their own.  Characters also have defined needs and personality traits that dictate how they act in given situations.

16 Complex Object Interactions  Characters are able to interact with an arrangement of objects in the environment due to unique object logic.

17 Black and White  Developed by Lionhead Studios  Published by EA games  Released in 2001  Simulation game in which you play God.

18 Black and White  Similar to Sim City  You had more control over the environment and the people in the game  You could also create armies and wage war

19 AI Learning  You could control and train large creatures  You could then punish or reward the creatures based on how they complete tasks.  Over time the creatures will learn how you wish tasks to be done based on how they are treated.

20 Combat Oriented Games  Simulation games are more advanced  Combat Oriented Games are more Popular  Evolution of AI in combat games has advanced quite a bit in the past 10 years.

21 Halo: Combat Evolved  Developed by Bungi  Published by Microsoft  Released in 2001  First person shooter that garnered fame for competently brining the genre to Consoles

22 Dynamic Enemy AI  Enemies reacted in dynamic ways.  Different enemies would react differently in different situations.  Enemies would work together against the player.

23 Behavior Trees

24 Tasks ConditionAction  Conditional Nodes represent read only functions.  These functions are when the AI unit observes some information about its environment  Examples: Searching for enemies or nearby cover, determining orientation.  Actions Represent actual performed functions.  These functions are generally reflected in the graphical representation.  Examples: Firing on an enemy, throwing a grenade, reloading, ducking behind cover.

25 Sequences and Selectors SequencesSelectors  A sequence represents a group of tasks that must be carried out in order for the overall task to complete  A selector will ultimately only carry out one task but attempt to run each of its child task until it finds the correct task for the situation. 123 ? 123

26 Behavior Tree ? ???

27 Behavior Trees: Good and Bad BenefitsCosts  Allows AI units to act in dynamic ways depending on the situation  Allows designers to group different actions together for different situations  Allows for enemy differentiation  Can be time consuming to generate  More complex actions require more complex trees  Running through all the possible actions can take a lot of time.

28 Behavior Trees Bottom Line  Are a good way to provide dynamic actions to individual AI Units  Generally require a larger AI control structure for proper implementation.

29 Left 4 Dead  Developed and published by Valve  Released in 2008  A co-op first person shooter set in a zombie apocalypse.


31 AI Director  The game utilizes an AI director that will change the game based on how well the player(s) are doing.  This can make the game more or less difficult for players with different skill levels.  This also changes the events of the game between different play sessions.

32 The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim  Developed and Published by Bethesda Game Studios  Released in 2011  Open World RPG set in a fantasy world

33 Unbalanced AI  Non Playable characters (NPCs) and enemies within the game world react dynamically with the player and each other.

34 Unbalanced AI  Enemies are not designed to deal with simple obstacles

35 Problems With AI in Gaming  There are a number of issues that prevent Video Games from being the best area for the evolution of AI  Despite the how far AI in games has come over time no game is perfect.  There are a number of reasons as to why this is and will always be the case.

36 Sequels

37 Release Schedule  Time  The game has to be released at some point and not everything that needs to be addressed can be addressed.  Money  Games are expensive to make so items are generally prioritized to put the most effort into what is considered most important.

38 Is it fun?  Games are about Entertainment  While the AI in a game might be very advanced it might not necessarily be entertaining.

39 Are Video Games good for AI Development? The GoodThe Bad  AI is essential to Games  Games provide a simulated world where programmers can experiment  The Game Industry is the largest area where AI is being applied.  Time and Money are an issue  Innovation might not be that important  Entertainment is more important then quality

40 References  Champandard, A. (2008, December 28). Behavior Trees for Next- Gen AI. Retrieved May 2011, from  Champandard, A. J. (2012, February 9). Trends and Highlights in Game AI for Retrieved May 2012, from  History of Game AI. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2012, from AI Game Programers Guild:  Montfort, N., & Bogost, I. (2009). Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. The MIT Press.  Wexler, J. (2002). Artificial Intelligence in Games: A look at the smarts behind Lionhead Studio’s “Black and White” and where it can and will go in the future. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester.

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