Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Artificial Intelligence In Video Games"— Presentation transcript:
1Evolution of Artificial Intelligence In Video Games By Brian Bell
2What is Artificial Intelligence? The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was coined by John McCarthy in 1956As a NounThe Intelligence of Machines.As a Field“The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”
3How does AI apply to games? Game AI is game design, implemented.
4Overview Step through the History of Video Games Highlight certain AI techniques and trendsGo over some of the pitfalls of modern AI development in the Video Game Industry
5Pong One of the First Video Games Manufactured by Atari Released in 1972Designed for 1 or 2 players.Essentially just table tennis in 2 dimensions.
6The AI of Pong There is Logic to how the Computer moves the paddle. The computer predicts where the ball with end up based on a number of factors then moves the paddle to that predicted location.To simulate Human error the computer is designed to skip its adjustment every 8 frames.
7Pac-Man Developed by Namco Distributed by Midway (in US) Released: 1980Single player onlySimple maze game
8Ghosts Chases Pac-Man Try to get in front of Pac-Man Moves at Random* While the Ghosts appear to move in a random order this is not always the case. As each Ghost has its own Algorithm to control its actions.Chases Pac-ManTry to get in front of Pac-ManMoves at Random*
9Super Mario Bros. Developed by Nintendo Released in 1985 Classic example of the Platformer
10Scripted AIEnemy units in the game are designed to follow a scripted pattern.Either move back and forth in a given location or attack a player if nearbyBecame a staple technique for AI design.
12Sim City Developed by Maxis Published by Electronic Arts Released in 1989First in a series of Simulation Games which are often at the forefront of AI technology
13A Living WorldThe player is able to manipulate certain aspects of the city.The population of the City acts somewhat autonomously.Furthermore the game will simulate random disasters.
14The Sims Developed by Maxis Published by Electronic Arts Released in 2000A life simulation game in which the player has control over a semi- autonomous people.
15Complex charactersThe Sims characters can be manipulated by the player but will also carry out day to day tasks on their own.Characters also have defined needs and personality traits that dictate how they act in given situations.
16Complex Object Interactions Characters are able to interact with an arrangement of objects in the environment due to unique object logic.
17Black and White Developed by Lionhead Studios Published by EA games Released in 2001Simulation game in which you play God.
18Black and White Similar to Sim City You had more control over the environment and the people in the gameYou could also create armies and wage war
19AI Learning You could control and train large creatures You could then punish or reward the creatures based on how they complete tasks.Over time the creatures will learn how you wish tasks to be done based on how they are treated.
20Combat Oriented Games Simulation games are more advanced Combat Oriented Games are more PopularEvolution of AI in combat games has advanced quite a bit in the past 10 years.
21Halo: Combat Evolved Developed by Bungi Published by Microsoft Released in 2001First person shooter that garnered fame for competently brining the genre to Consoles
22Dynamic Enemy AI Enemies reacted in dynamic ways. Different enemies would react differently in different situations.Enemies would work together against the player.
24Tasks Condition Action Conditional Nodes represent read only functions.These functions are when the AI unit observes some information about its environmentExamples: Searching for enemies or nearby cover, determining orientation.Actions Represent actual performed functions.These functions are generally reflected in the graphical representation.Examples: Firing on an enemy, throwing a grenade, reloading, ducking behind cover.
25Sequences and Selectors ?123123A sequence represents a group of tasks that must be carried out in order for the overall task to completeA selector will ultimately only carry out one task but attempt to run each of its child task until it finds the correct task for the situation.
27Behavior Trees: Good and Bad BenefitsCostsAllows AI units to act in dynamic ways depending on the situationAllows designers to group different actions together for different situationsAllows for enemy differentiationCan be time consuming to generateMore complex actions require more complex treesRunning through all the possible actions can take a lot of time.
28Behavior Trees Bottom Line Are a good way to provide dynamic actions to individual AI UnitsGenerally require a larger AI control structure for proper implementation.
29Left 4 Dead Developed and published by Valve Released in 2008 A co-op first person shooter set in a zombie apocalypse.
31AI DirectorThe game utilizes an AI director that will change the game based on how well the player(s) are doing.This can make the game more or less difficult for players with different skill levels.This also changes the events of the game between different play sessions.
32The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim Developed and Published by Bethesda Game StudiosReleased in 2011Open World RPG set in a fantasy world
33Unbalanced AINon Playable characters (NPCs) and enemies within the game world react dynamically with the player and each other.
34Unbalanced AIEnemies are not designed to deal with simple obstacles
35Problems With AI in Gaming There are a number of issues that prevent Video Games from being the best area for the evolution of AIDespite the how far AI in games has come over time no game is perfect.There are a number of reasons as to why this is and will always be the case.
37Release Schedule Time Money The game has to be released at some point and not everything that needs to be addressed can be addressed.MoneyGames are expensive to make so items are generally prioritized to put the most effort into what is considered most important.
38Is it fun? Games are about Entertainment While the AI in a game might be very advanced it might not necessarily be entertaining.
39Are Video Games good for AI Development? The GoodThe BadAI is essential to GamesGames provide a simulated world where programmers can experimentThe Game Industry is the largest area where AI is being applied.Time and Money are an issueInnovation might not be that importantEntertainment is more important then quality
40ReferencesChampandard, A. (2008, December 28). Behavior Trees for Next- Gen AI. Retrieved May 2011, from AiGameDev.com:Champandard, A. J. (2012, February 9). Trends and Highlights in Game AI for Retrieved May 2012, from aigamedev.com:History of Game AI. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2012, from AI Game Programers Guild:Montfort, N., & Bogost, I. (2009). Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. The MIT Press.Wexler, J. (2002). Artificial Intelligence in Games: A look at the smarts behind Lionhead Studio’s “Black and White” and where it can and will go in the future. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester.