Presentation on theme: "Yassine Fall Senior Economic Advisor, UNIFEM"— Presentation transcript:
1Yassine Fall Senior Economic Advisor, UNIFEM Senior Policy Advisor, Millennium ProjectENAP, June / 2005
2Gender inequalityGender inequality is about unequal rights for power control between women and menWithin every unit, that of family, community, the weakest and most vulnerable are women and girl childrenGender inequality is lack of access to and control over resources, opinion, protection, shelter, skills, learning and overall development
3Racial Discrimination A violation of all forms of human rights principles and internationally agreed legal instrumentsGenerates lack of opportunity, exclusion lack of access to national resources and assets and inequitable budget allocationIncreased burden of care and least rights for women
4Poverty Poverty: beyond low income and consume Includes: exclusion, lack of rights and choices.Affects women and men differently because of their societal roles, practical and strategic needs.Exacerbates gender inequality and vice versa,fosters unbalanced rights and obligations
5Gender, Race and Poverty Combined gender and racial discrimination aggravate povertyPoverty analysis in racially discriminated, class or ethnic divided society cannot be analyzed outside those social factorsRace analysis of poverty is sine qua non conditions for policy needs assessment or planning poverty interventions.
6MacroeconomicsMacroeconomics studies the behavior of eco agents like households, enterprises and the state and how decisions or changes in their behavior influence each other or the market.Macroeconomics is not gender or race neutral, each changes influence households and men and women inside households differently.
7A macro model: Y = C + G + I + (X-M) Y = National Income, GDP, measument of the value of economic activityC = ConsumptionG = Government ExpenditureI = Private Sector InvestmentX = ExportsM = ImportsIgnores social reproduction!!!!
8Gender and Racial Inequalities Y = C + I + G + (X-M) + (W+WR) W = unaccounted for Care workWR = Unaccounted for Care work from racially discriminated groupsY analyzed from point of public policy point of view:Taxation, social reproductive taxExpenditure, social substitution
9Gender and Racial Inequalities Y = C + I + G + (X-M) + (W+WR) What happens to poor women farmers food producers and processors?when G is reduced with cuts in rural subsidies (farm inputs, farm Implants, extension workers, training, land title with no means to exploit?What happens to local domestic producers and market?
10Gender and Racial Inequalities Y = C + I + G + (X-M) + (W+WR) What happens when Government has tokeep public expenditure down or prioritize in budget allocation?Women and men’s care work?Funding Gender based violenceReproductive healthEmployment?Freedom to choose?Participation Representation
11Gender and Racial Inequalities Y = C + I + G + (X-M) + (W+WR) What happens when racial equity is not integrated into public policy?What happens poverty resource allocation is considered “racially blind”, given that it is supposed to cater for all poor?What happens when institutions that ensure that racial equity and gender equality are not in placed or not empowered?
12MDG1, MDG3, MDG8 Recommendations of Task Forces on: Poverty and economic DevelopmentGender equality and empowerment of womenGlobal Partnership: AID, TRADE, DEBT
14Looking at the big Picture: Circular Flow of Resources….. Foreign SectorWage paymentExports revenuesImports paymentsLabor supplyPrivate SectorHouseholdsConsumer demandConsumer goodsCreditHousehold savingsCreditGovernmentInvestment savingsTaxes from householdsFinancial InstitutionsexpendituresTaxes from firmsBorrowingRepayingprovision ofGovernmentGovernmentsocialservices
15Circular Flow and market led Resource Allocation Foreign banksForeignMarkExports revenuesWagesImports paymentsGender distribution of laborPrivate SectorHouseholdsConsumer demandConsumer goodsCreditCreditGovernmentHousehold savingssavingsTaxes from householdsFinancial InstitutionsInvestmentsTaxes from firmsprivate sectorBorrowingRepayingprovision ofGovernmentGovernmentin foreignsocialservices
16Trade Liberalization Removal Tariffs and Loss of corporate and export taxes by Gt.Removal of subsidiesPrivatization of land and utilities with its corollary cost recoveryCommodification of agricultureRemoval of labor laws for worker’s rights and decent work to accomodate EPZ
17Adam Smith on TRADE in the Wealth of Nations II said: ‘Were those high duties and prohibitions taken away all at once, cheaper foreign goods of the same kind might be poured so fast into the home market as to deprive all at once many thousands of our people of their ordinary employment and means of subsistence. The disorder which this would occasion might no doubt be very considerable.’
18Fredrich List, in National System of Political Economy “free trade is the policy of the strong”Because every industrialized nation has pursued trade protection for its infant industries, Once they grow strong enough to withstand international competition they lower their trade barriers and ask others to do the same.
19GOAL8: AID, Trade, Debt Revisit unjust trade regime Debt cancellation is a mustUntied aid is non negotiablejustice in global trade is also critical for increased resources for poverty elimination
20LT Benefits of FDI and Trade What happens to other variables when too much emphasis is put on I + (X-M)???in the Y = C + G + I + (X-M) + WWhen will it ever trickle down?To Poverty?Gender equality?Development?
21Scaling up interventions Addressing Racial and Gender inequalityHuman rightsSocial investmentStronger Public SectorDomestic private sector empoweredLand titles and deeds for landless Poor farmers
22Scaling up interventions Only a strong public sector can ensure implementation of Task Force MP recommendationsResponses to absorptive CapacityCitizens Policing of Poverty Fund through Participation and representationPublic-Community Partnership
23Scaling up interventions Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment as unique alternative for successful MDGs OutcomesEnabling Women to enjoy their human rights and implementing TF3 rec:Building a representative multi level leadershipEnabling citizens, women to develop accountability systems
24Gender/Racial Equality Needs Assessment Assessment of gender and racially related economic and social inequalities, with particular attention to country selected focus sectorsEstimation of resources needed to implement comprehensive gender and racial equality-related interventions across multiple sectorsAdvocacy tool to ensure monitoring by beneficiaries that appropriate gender and racial equality-related interventions are included and budgeted for across all other sectors
25Benchmarks for integrating gender equality in needs assessment 1 Population identification2 Sector Analysis.Human RightsRepresentationParticipationCostBenefit3 Interventions andpolicy instruments4 Implementation5. Monitoring
26Is there genuine Participation? Participation refers here to playing a catalytic and innovative role providing substantive content in developing analysis, identifying priority needs and partners, implementing actions, monitoring outcomes and developing advocacy approaches and language.In all stages of needs assessment It would be critical to articulate the way in which different groups, women and men and other social groups are making a difference in moving the process forward in setting the national and local MDG agenda.
27Is there genuine Representation? Are social groups differentiated by gender, race, age , region, social status identified by different stakeholders like Parliamentarian, kilombolas and kilombolos, Government, women and men NGO, human rights groups, people living with disabilities, network of people living with HIV, etc?Are there skills building activities for those who need to be brought up to speed on MDG?What kind of information is being provided to them?Are they proportionally represented at all levels including stakeholder meeting, sector working groups, team of consultant, advocacy and campaigning?Are their concerns being genuinely included in all priority sectors and in the final report and identified programs?Do they feel their expectation of representation are being met, why or why not?
28Cost Human, time and work burden as cost Financial cost Material How to factor in unpaid work in Household contribution?Who should pay or not pay?What kind of tax system is more appropriate to empower women and the poorest?
29Benefits Gender Equality in budget allocation Employment benefits and empowerment of womenIdentification of hidden gender interventionsAdvocacy pushing the MDG envelope
30Stages of needs assessment Institutions(Gov, HH, NGO),Stakeholder- gender,Regional division,social condition,Age, etc.What contributionDoes each makein Provision ofservices in focussectorIdentify GenderEquality, synergiesand cross linkagesbetween sectorsEstimateresourceNeeds and costs+++Investment Model: who pays? Under what conditions? Household contribution and cost recovery from who?
31Multiple Dimensions of Analysis HealthLands/housingWater/SanitationEnvironmentEducationEnergyHungerMacroeconHouseholdCommunity,Government,Intern.Institutions,NGOs♀Voluntary slums workCollection, household useForest pdctsPre- school care and educationenergy provision for hh needsFood production, processing, nutritionTime and work burdenProvision ofservicesCare to HIV sufferersFamily farmSanitation maintenanceCollection for food, medicineResources: Human, Material and /or FinancialUser feeFunds mobilizUser feesCost recoveryPoorMngmt comiteeGender budgetTaxationManagementDecisionCommitteesComitte
32Gender equality in sectors and Gender-specific interventions Sector-specificInterventions toreach womenAwarenessSensitization and TrainingSubsidiesPrevention of violenceSystemic IssuesGender and racial Equality-related InterventionsTotal Gender Racial Equality/ Human Rights -related Needs
33Investment Model addresses three Sources of Funding Government Expenditures on the MDGs are provisionally assumed can be increased by 4 percent of GDP from now to 2015Household contributions from poorest groups should be assessed on the basis of:Extreme low level of income of the poorest users’ ability to paypoor women’s time and work burden in provision of social servicesthe negative incentive effect of user fees in essential servicesIn kind contribution of users3. External finance is required to close the financing