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Morphology Structure Function

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology Structure Function"— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology Structure Function
Anatomy of Bacteria Morphology Structure Function

2 Binary Fission “a method of asexual reproduction involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell followed by the development of each half into a new individual” septum progeny cells generation time

3 Morphology Size Shape Arrangement

4 Size prokaryotic (bacteria) cells are very small compared to eukaryotic cells prokaryotic cells are the most abundant form of life on earth prokaryotic cells can survive in conditions that are too extreme for eukaryotic cells

5 Shape Readings question one:
What are the three basic shapes that most bacteria exhibit?

6 Spiral (Vibrio, Spirillum, Spirochete)
Vibrio: “curved or bent rods that resemble commas” Spirillum: “a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement” Spirochete: “a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. Movement occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell.”

7 Arrangement Readings question two:
What are the three basic arrangements that most bacteria exhibit? Additional arrangements: Tetracocci: “grouping of four spherical shaped cells” Sarcinae: “a cube-like packet of eight spherica bacteria”

8 Structure and Function
up until the 1950’s prokaryotes were believed to simply be “bags of enzymes” prokaryotes have a simpler construction than eukaryotes prokaryotic cell has 5 essential structural components: Nucleoid (bacterial chromosome) Ribosomes Cell membrane Cell wall Capsule

9 Nucleoid bacterial chromosome
typically one large circular molecule of DNA floats freely in the cytoplasm genetic control center of the cell determines all of the properties and functions of the bacterium

10 Ribosomes proteins and RNA
prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes protein synthesis “granular” appearance

11 Cell Membrane and Cell Wall
Readings question three: What is the difference between the cell membrane and the cell wall?

12 Capsule “the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis” glycocalyx slime layer

13 Cytoplasm Readings question four:
What is the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells? primary structures: nucleoid and ribosomes plasmids: extrachromosomal pieces of DNA

14 Endospores “a thick-walled spore within a bacterium”

15 Endospores produced by the bacterium to help it survive in an unfavorable environment formed by vegetative cells- “sporulation” one of the most resistant forms of life germination

16 Clostridium tetani deep wound punctures that become anoxic
tetanus toxin spreads and causes disease spastic paralysis and can result in death

17 Clostridium botulinum
botulinum toxin in improperly preserved foods botulism can result in death due to respiratory failure as a result of muscle paralysis

18 Clostrideium perfringens
most prevalent reported cause of food poisoning enterotoxins in the intestines diarrhea and intestinal cramps with no fever or vomiting

19 Flagella protein structures attached to the cell surface that resemble “whip-like” appendages distributed in distinguishing patterns flagella of prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells

20 Pili (Fimbriae) short, hair-like structures on the surface of prokaryotic cells composed of protein shorter, thinner, and straighter than flagella allow bacteria to attach to surfaces e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae

21 Gram-staining Readings question five:
What is the purpose of gram-staining? What are the characteristics of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria?

22 Physiology of Bacteria
Bacterial Growth

23 Bacterial Colony “a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism”

24 Requirements for Growth
Physical: temperature, pH, light, osmotic pressure, moisture Chemical: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, trace elements, oxygen

25 Temperature Readings question three:
What are psychrophiles, mesophiles, and thermophiles?

26 Psychrophiles Desulfofrigus oceanense (Arctic and Antarctic Oceans)

27 Mesophiles E. coli

28 Thermophiles Fossilized Microbes from Yellowstone’s Hot Springs
They become preserved as the spring cools.

29 Temperatures Minimum: “temperature below which bacterial growth will not take place” Optimum: “temperature at which organisms grow best” Maximum: “temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place”

30 What are the embalming implications associated with the temperature preference of bacteria?

31 pH Readings question four: Describe the pH scale.
Acidophiles: bacteria that are remarkably tolerant of acidity

32 Light Cyanobacteria: oxygen producing prokaryotes Yeasts and Molds
thrive in the presence of light Yeasts and Molds prefer dark areas Some bacteria are destroyed by ultraviolet light.

33 Osmotic Pressure “pressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane” microorganisms require water for growth and are made up of 80-90% water high osmotic pressure removes necessary water from a cell plasmolysis hypertonic solutions

34 Moisture maximum, optimum and minimum requirement for all microorganisms Pathogenic bacteria are usually found in the body’s tissues Fungal diseases are usually found on the body surface.

35 Chemical Requirements
Readings question two: Describe the differences between autotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria.

36 Heterotrophic Bacteria
3 categories: 1) strict (obligate) saprophyte 2) strict (obligate) parasite 3) facultative bacteria: Facultative saprophyte: “prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions” Facultative parasite: capable of living and growing with the nutrients that its host provides

37 Carbon one of the most important requirements for microbial growth
structural backbone of living matter needed for all the organic compounds that make up a living cell ½ of the “dry weight” of a bacterial cell is carbon

38 Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus
needed by microorganisms for the synthesis of cellular material e.g. protein, DNA, RNA, ATP

39 Trace Elements iron, copper, and zinc
essential for the function of certain enzymes

40 Oxygen Microbes that use molecular oxygen (aerobes) produce more energy from nutrients than microbes that do not use oxygen (anaerobes) Reading question two: Describe the difference between obligate aerobes and obligate anaerobes.

41 Microaerophilic Organisms
“a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen” only grow in oxygen concentrations that are lower than those in air require about 2 – 10% free oxygen

42 Facultative Organisms
Facultative Aerobes: “a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen” Facultative Anaerobes: “a microorganism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence” E.g. Bacillus anthracis, Corneybacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli

43 Aerotolerant Organisms
can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes

44 Microbial Associations
normal flora (microbiota) transient microbiota symbiotic relationship: “organisms live in close nutritional relationships; required by one or both members” distinguished by the degree to which the host organism is harmed

45 Mutualism “a symbiotic relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association to the mutual benefit of each” e.g. E. coli in the human digestive tract

46 Commensalism “the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains some benefit such as protection or nourishment and the other is not harmed or benefited” e.g. bacteria on skin surface; microorganisms within the digestive tract

47 Parasitism “an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits” many disease-causing bacteria are parasites typically the host is macroscopic and the parasite is microscopic roundworms and flatworms are parasites that are large multi-cellular organisms

48 Readings question five:
What is the synergistic effect?

49 Antagonism “mutual opposition or contrary action. The inhibition of one microorganism by another.” Involves competition among microbes normal microbiota protect the host against colonization by potentially pathogenic microbes normal flora produce substances harmful to the invading microbes (pH, oxygen)

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