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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No true nucleus No organelles Complex cell walls containing peptioglycan Divide by binary.

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No true nucleus No organelles Complex cell walls containing peptioglycan Divide by binary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No true nucleus No organelles Complex cell walls containing peptioglycan Divide by binary fission True nucleus Organelles Histone protein associated with DNA Simple cell walls Divide by mitosis

3 Bacterial Shapes Coccus – round Bacillus – rod Spiral Vibrio – comma shaped Spirochete - helical

4 Coccus / Arrangement

5 Bacillus / Arrangement

6 Other Shapes

7 Bacterial Shapes Most bacteria exhibit only one shape, they are said to be MONOMORPHIC Some bacteria can exhibit many shapes, they are said to be PLEOMORPHIC Members of genus Corynebacterium are pleomorphic

8 Bacterial Cell

9 Structures outside the cell wall Glycocalyx – general term for anything that surrounds the cell Organized and firmly attached outer layer is called a CAPSULE Capsules are often important in bacterial virulence Loosely attached and unorganized outer layer is called a SLIME LAYER

10 Bacterial capsules

11 Flagella Some bacteria are motile by means of flagella The arrangement of the flagella can be in several ways: –Monotrichous – single flagella at one end –Amphitrichous – flagella at each end –Lophotrichous – two or more flagella at one end –Peritrichous – flagella spread over the entire cell

12 Escherichia coli

13 Fimbriae and Pili Short, numerous hair like appendages on the cell are called FIMBRIAE Used for attachment to surfaces, like your teeth PILI are longer than fimbriae, only one or two per cell and used to transfer genetic material between bacteria Sex pili

14 E. Coli - fimbriae

15 Bacterial Cell Wall All bacteria, except for one genus, are surrounded by a rigid cell wall Cell wall is composed of a complex macromolecule called PEPTIDOGLYCAN Function of the cell wall is to –Maintain the shape of the cell –Prevent the cell from rupturing in high water pressure –Anchor point for flagella

16 Cell Wall Comparison Gram + cell Many layers of peptidoglycan Thick rigid structure Strongly binds crystal violet in the Gram stain procedure making the cells blue Gram – cell One or two layers of peptidoglycan Outer lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) – toxin Periplasmic space Lightly binds crystal violet in the Gram procedure

17 Gram + Cell Wall

18 Gram – Cell Wall

19 Can a bacteria survive without a cell wall? Yes, but only special conditions The enzyme lysozyme can break down the protein of the cell wall Gram + cell in an isotonic environment + lysozyme = protoplast Gram – cell in an isotonic environment + lysozyme = spheroplast

20 Acid-fast cells Cell wall is about 60% peptidoglycan Cell wall contains MYCOLIC ACID Waxy lipid substance Cells generally stain as Gram + Strongly bind carbol fuchsin in the acid- fast staining procedure Cells stain a bright purple red color in the acid-fast procedure

21 Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bilayer with associated proteins Selective permeability Nutrient breakdown Energy production

22

23 Nuclear area Bacterial cells contain ONE chromosome Circular in structure Just DNA, no associated proteins Some cells contain PLASMIDS Plasmids are separate from the main chromosome Also circular in structure, but smaller Contain only a few genes Often carry genes for antibiotic resistance

24 Ribosomes Protein synthesis Prokaryotic ribosomes are 70S in size Eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S in size Difference in size is important in antibiotic activity

25 Endospores Resting stage for certain bacteria Spores form when nutrients become depleted Spores are highly resistant to heat and drying Two genera of bacteria that form spores are Bacillus and Clostridium Spores germinate when placed in fresh media NOT a reproductive process, it’s SURVIVAL for the cells

26

27 Movement Across Membranes Simple diffusion – passive Facilitated diffusion – passive Osmosis – passive Active transport – requires the cell use energy

28 Simple Diffusion

29 Facilitated Diffusion

30 Osmosis

31 Active Transport Cell uses energy in the form of ATP Nutrients are concentrated inside the cell against the concentration gradient Transporters in the cell membrane are responsible for this active process

32 Eukaryotic Cell


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