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CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHAPTER 4.

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Presentation on theme: "CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHAPTER 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS CHAPTER 4

2 2 Cellular Characteristics Prokaryotes binary fission no nucleus/nucleoid no organelles no introns genes arranged as operons cell wall of peptidoglycan Eukaryotes mitosis/meiosis nucleus histones organelles introns cell wall of chitin or cellulose or absent 80s rRNA

3 3 Prokaryotic Cells Sizes Shapes Arrangement

4 4 Typical Prokaryotic Cell

5 Fig. 4-16ab Gram–positive Peptidoglycan Cytoplasm Membrane Gram–negative Peptidoglycan Cytoplasm Cytoplasmic membrane Periplasm Outer membrane (Iipopolysaccharide and protein)

6 6 Gram Positive Cell Wall Gram positive

7 Fig. 4-16c Peptidoglycan Cytoplasmic membrane TEM of bacterium

8 8 Gram Negative Cell Wall Gram negative

9 Fig Gram–positive Peptidoglycan Cytoplasm Membrane Gram–negative Peptidoglycan Cytoplasm Cytoplasmic membrane Periplasm Outer membrane (Iipopolysaccharide and protein) Outer membrane Cytoplasmic membrane Peptidoglycan Cytoplasmic membrane

10 Peptidoglycan Fig O–polysaccharide Outer membrane Cell wall Periplasm Cytoplasmic membrane Core polysaccharide Lipid A Protein Out Lipopoly- saccharide (LPS) 8 nm Porin Phospholipid Lipoprotein In Peptidoglycan

11 11 Acid Fast Cell Wall Acid Fast Wall deficient Lipid layer penetrated by hydrophobic carbol fuchsin

12 12 Cell Structures — Membrane Plasma membrane

13 13 Cell Structures — Membrane

14 14 Internal Cell Structures Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nuclear region

15 15 Inclusions Internal Membranes

16 16 Endospores

17 17 Fig. 4-38

18 Fig Vegetative cell Developing spore Sporulating cell Mature spore Germination

19 Fig Exosporium Spore coat Core wall Cortex DNA

20 20 Cell Structures — External Flagellae

21 Fig nm Filament Flagellin Outer membrane (LPS) Hook L Ring P Ring Rod Periplasm MS Ring Basal body C Ring Cytoplasmic membrane Mot protein Fli proteins (motor switch) 45 nm Mot protein Peptidoglycan Rod MS Ring C Ring Mot protein L P MS

22 22 Cell Structures — Axial filaments Axial Filaments

23 23 Cell Structures — Attachment Pili Fimbriae

24 24 Cell Structures — Glycocalyx Capsule Slime Layer

25 25 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

26 26 Eukaryotic Cells Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus

27 27 Eukaryotic Organelles — Mt Mitochondria

28 28 Eukaryotic Organelles — Chloroplasts Chloroplasts

29 29 Eukaryotic Organelles Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum

30 30 Eukaryotic Organelles Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Peroxisomes Vacuoles

31 31 Cytoskeleton and Motility Cytoskeleton Flagellae

32 32 Motility — Cilia Cilia

33 33 Motility — Cilia Cilia

34 34 Motility — Cilia Cilia

35 35 Motility — Pseudopods Pseudopodia

36 36 Cell Walls Fungal cell wall (chitin) Plant cell wall(cellulose)

37 37 Endosymbiotic Theory

38 38 Endosymbiosis

39 39 Movement Across Membranes Diffusion

40 40 Osmosis Water movement

41 41 Active Transport Active transport

42 42 Endo/Exocytosis


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