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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.6 The Structure of a Prokaryotic Cell.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.6 The Structure of a Prokaryotic Cell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.6 The Structure of a Prokaryotic Cell

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Glycocalyx  Outside cell wall  Usually sticky (biofilms)  Capsule: neatly organized  Slime layer: unorganized and loose  Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach  Capsules prevent phagocytosis  Capsules were instrumental in determining that DNA was the genetic material (Fig p. 235)

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Griffith’s experiments leading the way to discovering- what is the genetic (hereditary) material? The key was the GLYCOCALYX!

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Griffith’s experiments leading the way to discovering- what is the genetic (hereditary) material?

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Griffith’s experiments leading the way to discovering- what is the genetic (hereditary) material?

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Griffith’s experiments leading the way to discovering- what is the genetic (hereditary) material?

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.7 Arrangements of Bacterial Flagella

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.10a Axial Filaments  Also called endoflagella or periplasmic flagella  In spirochetes only  The spirochetes are a … unique group of bacteria. This phylum contains not only many medically important species such as Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi but others live inside arthropods such as termites and some that are free-living and reside in soil and water.  Individual AF can be anchored at one end or the other of a cell. Rotation causes the cell to move.

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.11 Fimbriae and Pili: Made of a different protein (pilin) than flagella and are shorter, thinner, straighter. Fimbriae allow attachment: Important for some diseases (gonorrhea and E.coli 0157:H7) and biofilms.

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pili: Some are used for movement and others for transfer of DNA Yikes! Resistance!

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.13a Peptidoglycan  Linked by polypeptides

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gram Positive Cell Wall Many layers of peptidoglycan

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Impetigo and Necrotizing fasciitis flesh- eating disease)

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.13c Gram-Negative Cell Wall

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gram - Sepsis

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Gram Stain Table 4.1 (a) Gram-Positive(b) Gram-Negative

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.14b The Plasma Membrane Fig p. 90 -as viscous as olive oil  Phospholipid bilayer  Peripheral proteins  Integral proteins  Transmembrane proteins

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.17a Movement of Materials across Membranes  Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.17b-c Movement of Materials across Membranes  Facilitated diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.17d Movement of water across Membranes  Through lipid layer  Aquaporins (water channels)

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.18c–e The Principle of Osmosis Fig p. 93 The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.6 The Nucleoid, Plasmids, & Ribosomes

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sporulation and Germination Figure 4.21a

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.22a The Eukaryotic Cell

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4.2 Cytoplasm

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.24a–b The Eukaryotic Nucleus

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organelles only found in Eukaryotic Cells  Nucleus: Contains chromosomes  ER: Transport network  Golgi complex: Membrane formation and secretion  Lysosome: Digestive enzymes  Vesicles: Membrane sacs-storage, protection, transport  Vacuole: Brings food/liquid into cells and provides support

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Organelles only found in Eukaryotic Cells  Mitochondrion: Cellular respiration  Chloroplast: Photosynthesis  Peroxisome: Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H 2 O 2  Centrosome: Consists of protein fibers and centrioles (Utilized for cell division)

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.2 Endosymbiotic Theory

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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