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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lecture 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lecture 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lecture 2

2 Scale of Microbes

3 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Common features:  DNA and chromosomes  Cell membrane  Cytosol and Ribosomes Distinctive features: ?

4 Eukaryotic Cell (protist, animal)

5 Eukaryo Eukaryotic Cell (plant)

6 Differences Between Cell Types Prokaryotic CellEukaryotic Cell Single circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes Chromosome found in a cytoplasmic region called the nucleoid. Chromosomes found in a membrane-bound nucleus. No internal membranes Some infolded plasma membrane Extensive network of internal membranes Specialized areas called organelles

7 Prokaryotes One circular chromosome, not membrane bound No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission

8 Size and Shape of Prokaryotic Cells Average size: µm  µm Three basic shapes 1. Bacillus, 2. Coccus, 3. Spirals (Vibrio, Spirillum, Spirochete) Most monomorphic, some pleomorphic Variations in cell arrangements (esp. for cocci)

9 Rod-Shaped Bacteria

10 Spherical Bacteria

11 Spiral-Shaped Bacteria Spirochete: Borrelia burgdorferi

12 Cell Arrangement Pairs: Diplococci, diplobacilli Clusters: Staphylococci Chains: Streptococci, streptobacilli

13 Cytoplasm and Internal Structures Location of most biochemical activities Nucleoid: nuclear region containing DNA (up to 3500 genes). Most bacterial chromosomes are circular Plasmids: small, nonessential, circular DNA (5-100 genes); replicate independently Ribosomes (70S vs. 80S) Inclusion bodies: granules containing nutrients, monomers, Fe compounds (magnetosomes)

14 Prokaryotic Cell

15 Closed Circular Chromosome Also Plasmids, which are smaller, circular pieces of DNA. Plasmids usually encode expendable functions, e.g., antibiotic resistance.

16 Ribosomes: Sites of Translation On order of 10,000 per cell!

17 Internal Structures: Cell Membrane Analogous to eukaryotic cell membrane: Phospholipid bilayer with proteins (Fluid mosaic model) Permeability barrier (selectively permeable) Diffusion, osmosis and transport systems Different from eukaryotic cell membrane: Role in Energy transformation (electron transport chain for ATP production) Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary ammonium (detergents), and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents.

18 Simple Diffusion -- Osmosis solute molecules/ions

19 Cytoplasmic Membrane

20 Protein-Mediated Transport

21 Active Transport

22 Cell Wall Rigid for shape & protection  prevents osmotic lysis Consists of Peptidoglycan (murein)  polymer of two disaccharide subunits  N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and  N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) Linked by polypeptides with tetrapeptide side chain attached to NAM Fully permeable to ions, aa, and sugars (Gram positive cell wall may regulate movement of cations)

23 Gram + Cell Wall Thick layer of peptidoglycan Negatively charged teichoic acid on surface Thin peptidoglycan No teichoic acids Outer membrane Gram – Cell Wall

24 Gram-positive Cell Wall Fig 4.13

25 Gram-negative Cell Wall Lipid A of LPS acts as endotoxin; O antigens for typing, e.g., E. coli O157:H7 Gram neg. bacteria are less sensitive to medications because outer membrane acts as additional barrier. LPS layer = outer layer of outer membrane (protein rich gel-like fluid)

26 Gram Stain Mechanism Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell. Gram-positive  Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan  CV-I crystals do not leave Gram-negative  Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan.  CV-I washes out

27 Atypical Bacteria: Mycoplasmas Lack cell walls Instead, have cell membrane which incorporates cholesterol compounds (sterols), similar to eukaryotic cells Cannot be detected by typical light microscopy This EM shows some typically pleomorph mycoplasmas, in this case M. hyorhinis

28 Acid-fast Cell Walls Genus Mycobacterium and Nocardia mycolic acid (waxy lipid) covers thin peptidoglycan layer Do not stain well with Gram stain  use acid-fast stain

29 Damage to Cell Wall Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. Protoplast is a wall-less cell. Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell. L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes. Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.

30 External Structures located outside of cell wall Flagella Axial filaments Fimbriae Pili Glycocalyx

31 Many bacteria secrete external surface layer composed of sticky polysaccharide (EPS), polypeptide, or both A capsule is neatly organized A slime layer is unorganized and loose Allows cells to attach  key to biofilms Prevents phagocytosis  virulence factor E.g.: B. anthracis, S. pneumoniae, S. mutans

32 Flagellum – Flagella Anchored to wall and membrane Number and placement determines if atrichous, monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, or peritrichous Allows for move toward or away from stimuli: Chemotaxis (phototaxis and magnetotaxis) Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)

33 Flagellar Arrangements also “atrichous” e.g., E. coli Polar Flagellum

34 “Run and Tumble” Fig 4.9

35 Axial Filaments Endoflagella In spirochetes Anchored at one end of a cell Rotation causes cell to move Fimbriae allow attachment Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae and Pili

36 Fimbriae

37 Endospores Dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure;  germination  vegetative cells Spore forming genera: __________ Resistance to UV and  radiation, desiccation, lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and chemical disinfectants Relationship to disease Sporulation: Endospore formationEndospore formation Germination: Return to vegetative state

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