Presentation on theme: "Policy making can be frustrating due to the fact that policy makers usually rely on public opinion. True False."— Presentation transcript:
1 Policy making can be frustrating due to the fact that policy makers usually rely on public opinion. TrueFalse
2 This requires policy makers move quickly when making policy, before public gets bored and loses interest.IncrementalismPolicy fragmentationAgenda settingIssue-attention cyclePolicy formulation
3 Incrementalism is a fast moving process in which policy makers work to rush out a solution to a problem.TrueFalse
4 With regards to defining the role of government, the political left favors more government activity. TrueFalse
5 With regards to agenda setting, everyone has equal input when it comes to developing policy. TrueFalse
6 The war on drugs is an example of a policy that has been heavily fragmented. TrueFalse
7 The Constitution as ratified in 1788 most clearly reflects the framers’ commitment to Direct democracyLimited governmentAbolition of slaveryProtecting rights of the accusedMaintaining the primacy of the states
8 Which of the following most accurately describes The Federalist Papers? The Federalist party platform during the presidency of John Adams, the first Federalist President.A popular anti-British booklet of the Revolutionary eraA collection of essays arguing the merits of the ConstitutionA series of congressional acts defining the relationship between the federal and state governments.The laws under which the South was governed during Reconstruction
9 All of the following are specifically mentioned in the Constitution EXCEPT Judicial reviewNational censusRules of impeachmentState of the Union addressLength of term of federal judgeships
10 Which of the following best illustrates the best use of the elastic clause? The Supreme Court allows a lower court ruling to stand by refusing to hear an appeal.A congressional committee prevents the full chamber from voting on legislation by delaying its report.Congress passes legislation establishing a national speed limit.A member of the House of Reps introduces a bill to increase federal income taxA governor issues an executive order requiring all state employees to submit to drug testing
11 The swift adoption of the Bill of Rights in the years following the ratification of the Constitution demonstrates theFramers ‘ unqualified commitment to individual rightsSmall states’ determination to receive equal representation in the legislatureNorthern states’ support for abolitionismStates’ fears of a overpowerful national governmentFederalists’ concerns that the system of checks and balances would weaken the national government
12 According to the Federalist Papers, federalism has which of the following effects on political factions?It provides a structured environment in which factions may flourish.It limits the dangers of factionalism by diluting political power.It allows factions to dominate on the national level while limiting their influence on state governments.It eliminates any opportunity for factions to form.It prevents factions by declaring them illegal.
13 The Constitution, as originally ratified, addressed all of the following weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPTLack of a chief executive office.National government’s inability to levy taxes effectively.Absence of a central authority to regulate trade.Insufficiency of the government’s power to raise an army.Omission of a universal woman’s suffrage clause.
14 Congress would be required to use the “elastic clause” of the Constitution to Change citizenship requirementsImpose workplace safety standardsIncrease tax ratesAuthorize the treasury to print moneyDeclare war
15 The framers of the Constitution sought to insulate the Senate from public opinion by Restricting Senate membership to those who previously served in the House of Representatives.Delegating the responsibility for electing senators to the state legislatures.Requiring all spending bills to originate in the House of Reps.Empowering the Senate to provide advice and consent to the executive branch.Assigning exactly two senators to each state’s congressional delegation.
16 Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government had the power to Negotiate treatiesCollect taxesEstablish a federal judiciaryEnforce its lawsRegulate interstate commerce
17 Creating insurmountable obstacles to the creation of factions In Federalist 10, James Madison argues that a federal system of govt. reduces the danger of political factions byCreating insurmountable obstacles to the creation of factionsMaking it difficult for one faction to gain the power necessary to governRequiring equal representation of all factions within the governmentRestricting factional political activity to the state level onlyAllowing federal agencies to strictly regulate the activities of factions
19 Of the following, American federalism is greatly exemplified by the System of checks and balances among the three branches.Process by which international treaties are completedSpecial constitutional status of Washington, D.C.10th Amendment, reserving powers for the statesPresident’s power to grant reprieves and pardons
20 Which of the following correctly states the relationship between the federal and state judiciaries? Federal courts are higher courts than state courts and may overturn state decisions on any grounds.The two are entirely autonomous, and neither ever hear cases that originate in the other.The two are generally autonomous, although federal courts may rule on the constitutionality of state court decisions.State courts are trial courts; federal courts are appeals courts.State courts try all cases except those that involve conflicts between two states, which are tried in federal courts
21 To which characteristic of American government does the term “federalism” refer? The system of checks and balances within the national government.The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws.The Bill of Rights’ protection of the rights of the accused.The process by which the size of each state’s delegation to the House of Representatives.The division and sharing of powers between the national and state governments.
22 National and state governments share all of the following powers EXCEPT Administer electionsImpose taxesEstablish courtsBorrow moneyEnact laws
23 The 10th Amendment most often comes into conflict with which section of the Constitution? The “full faith and credit” clauseThe “necessary and proper” clauseProvisions for impeachmentProhibiting states from coining money and entering treatiesProvisions for constitutional amendments
24 Laissez-faire capitalists Loose constructionists States’ righters People who interpret the 10th Amendment as greatly restricting the powers of the national government are often referred to asFederalistsIsolationistsLaissez-faire capitalistsLoose constructionistsStates’ righters
25 In the majority of cases, federal programs are implemented by Private businesses, working as subcontractors to the government.State and local governments, by means of federal funding.Congress, through the local offices of its elected officialsThe federal courts, by means of criminal prosecutions.Federal agencies, through their many local offices in cities and towns.
26 The government often finds it difficult to make substantive changes to entitlement for which of the following reasons?Most programs were established by constitutional amendment.These programs are extremely popular among their numerous beneficiaries, and the beneficiaries rely on those benefits.Such programs are vital to national defense.Most such programs primarily benefit the wealthy, a powerful political bloc.These programs’ budget are determined by nonelected bureaucrats, not by the Congress.
27 Condition of aid Quid pro quo order Mandate Pro bono requirement Judges have ordered Massachusetts to change the way it hires firefighters, even though the state does not receive aid from the federal government. Such an order is referred to as aCondition of aidQuid pro quo orderMandatePro bono requirementPer curiam orderpr
28 The difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is With a mandate the federal government tells a state government what it must do if it wants the money.A mandate applies to a block grant; a condition of aid applies to a categorical grant.A mandate applies to a categorical grant; a condition of aid applies to a block grant.With a mandate the federal government allows the state to do as it pleases if its actions are in accordance with state law.With a mandate it makes no difference who is paying the costs of a program.
29 The McCulloch v. Maryland decision established Judicial review by the Supreme CourtState sovereignty in interstate commerceNational govt. supremacy over the statesLegality of the slave tradeAll of the above
30 Political Opinion, participation, culture, parties
31 Which of the following best describes the practice of “ticket splitting”? A presidential nominee selects a running mate who can appeal to voter groups whose support of the nominee is weak.A voter chooses the presidential nominee of one major party, but chooses congressional nominees of the other major party.A mayor orders the local police force to hand out fewer parking violations in the weeks leading up to the general election.A delegate to a national party convention supports the front-runner but remains uncommitted on the party platform.A member of Congress votes against legislation proposed by his or her party leader.
32 Compared with political parties in countries such as England and Israel, both of which have multiparty systems, American political parties areLess interested in influencing the outcome of elections.Less clearly identified with consistent political ideologies.Less effective at raising money from political supporters.Better able to reflect the goals of their entire constituencies.More likely to organize around a single issue or goal
33 Of the following groups that have traditionally supported the Democratic Party, which would LEAST likely be cited by someone arguing that the Democrats represented only liberal constituencies?White SouthernersLabor union membersAfrican AmericansNorthern ethnic minoritiesenvironmentalists
34 A member of which of the following demographic groups is most likely to support a Republican presidential candidate?White maleWhite femaleAfrican American, male or femaleYouths under the age of 25, male or femaleIndividuals earning below poverty-level wages, male or female
35 Which of following is the most accurate statement about the voting behavior of Americans over the age of 65?More likely, because they have higher education.More likely, because they feel as if they have a personal stake in govt. policy.Less likely, because it is difficult to get to the polls.Less likely, because less aware of election schedules.Less likely, very few senior citizens run for political office.
36 The greatest number of American voters identify themselves as LiberalConservativeProgressiveReactionaryModerate
37 They displace one of the two major parties and become a major party. Which of the following most accurately describes the fate of most third-party movements?They displace one of the two major parties and become a major party.They are ultimately abandoned by public because their policies are too radical.Their supporters become frustrated and withdraw from the political process.They remain active participants in the American political system.They disintegrate when one or both major parties adopt third party goals.
38 Which of the following is an accurate statement about the leadership of the two major political parties?The national party organization controls all facets of party activity.Party leadership is dispersed among numerous officials at the national, state, and local levels.The highest elected official in each national party directs that party’s activists all the way down to the state and local level.All major decisions concerning party activities are made during each party’s presidential nominating conventions.Prominent former officeholders, such a ex-presidents, lead their respective parties.
39 The absence of a political party solely dedicated to labor and working class issues in the United StatesProves U.S. politicians are not concerned about serving working-class constituenciesIs the result of government restrictions placed on labor unionsReflects the difficulty of unifying a party around a single issue in a “winner take all” formatDemonstrates that, in the United States, most political issues regarding workers have been decided in the workers’ favorIllustrates that race, not class, is the primary political division in the United States.
40 Which of the following is true of most third parties in U.S. history? They arose and succeeded during times of prosperityThey were created to protest warsAt some point they won a majority of seats in CongressThey flourished during times of widespread dissatisfactionThey arose in response to increased government regulation
41 An open primary is a primary election in which Voters registered as “independents” may not voteCandidates do not specify the office for which they are runningVoters may register at their polling place on election dayCandidates need not announce their candidacy until the day of the primaryVoters may vote in the election of a party other than the one they are registered in.
42 The chart to the left best supports which of the following conclusions? No more than half of all eligible voters ever participate in federal elections.The number of registered voters always increases between elections.Voters have been more dissatisfied with their electoral choices in the last decade than they were during the 1970s.Voter turnout for midterm congressional elections is generally lower than it is for presidential elections.Voter turnout for the 1996 presidential election was the lowest for any presidential election during the 20th century.
44 A Supreme Court that demonstrates a willingness to change public policy and alter judicial precedent is said to be engaging inJudicial activismDue processJudicial restraintEx post facto law makingJudicial review
45 A writ of certiorari from the Supreme Court indicates the court Will review a lower court decision.Has rendered a decision on a case.Has decided not to hear an appeal.Will recess until the end of the calendar year.Plans to overturn one of its previous rulings.
46 Under which of the following circumstances is Congress LEAST likely to pass a bill the president threatened to veto?The president’s public approval rating is extremely high.A failed attempt has been made to develop a compromise bill with the White House.The party controlling Congress is not the president’s party.The president has also expressed the possibility that he might not veto the bill.Congressional leaders believe they have the votes necessary to override the veto.
47 The Rules Committee is considered among the most powerful in the House of Reps. because it has great power over theEthical conduct of House membersSelection of federal judgesNumber of subcommittees that a standing committee may establish at any given timeScheduling of votes and the conditions under which bills are debated and amendedRegulations governing federal elections
48 Among the executive branch’s checks on the legislative branch is the president’s power to Call special sessions of CongressIntroduce bills to the floor of CongressAddress Congress during its debate on billsVote on acts of CongressDisband congressional committees
49 Unlike a treaty, an executive agreement Is not bindingDoes not involve international relationsDoes not require the Senate’s approvalCan be enforced by the militaryAutomatically expires after one year
50 I only I and IV only I, III, and IV only II and IV only Which of the following accounts for the fact that the power and prestige of the presidency have grown since 1932? I. America’s increased prominence in international affairs II. Continually improved public confidence in the federal government. III. The new deal and other programs that have expanded federal responsibility IV. The president’s increased visibility, due to the development of mass media.I onlyI and IV onlyI, III, and IV onlyII and IV onlyII, III, and IV only
51 Which of the following generally results when the Senate and House pass different versions of the same bill?The president signs the version he prefersThe bill goes back to each house’s committee and restarts the legislative processAll amendments to the bill are invalidated, and the original version of the bill is sent to the president to signThe Senate’s version of the bill is sent to the president because the Senate is the higher legislative bodyThe two legislative bodies form a conference committee
52 Which of the following best illustrates a use of the elastic clause? The Supreme Court allows a lower court ruling to stand by refusing to hear an appeal.A congressional committee prevents the full chamber from voting on legislation by delaying its request.Congress passes legislation establishing a national speed limit.A member of the House of Representatives introduces a bill to increase the federal income tax.A governor raises an executive order requiring all state employees to submit to drug testing.
53 In recent years, presidents have come to rely mostly on the advice of The full cabinetThe vice presidentCongressional delegationsWhite House staffForeign ambassadors
54 Which of the following statements about the electoral college is correct? Each state my split its electoral votes among as many candidates as it wishes.Each state is equally represented in the electoral college.The electoral college was created by an amendment to the Constitution.The results of the electoral college voting tend to distort the winner’s margin of victory, when compared with the popular vote for president.Each state’s delegation to the electoral college consists of that state’s U.S. Senators and representatives.
55 Which of the following is most true of congressional incumbents who run for reelection? Incumbent Senators are more likely to be reelected the Representatives.Incumbents are prohibited by law from spending more on their campaigns than their challengers.Incumbents have a great advantage over challengers because they are better known and can raise money easier.Ever since 1994, the majority of congressional incumbents have failed in reelection attempts.Most incumbents who run for reelection are unopposed in the general elections.
56 A member of the House of Representatives wishing to influence tax policy would most likely try to serve on which of the following committees?CommerceWays and MeansEducation and the WorkforceResourcesJudiciary
57 The boundary lines of congressional districts must be redrawn every ten years to Reflect population shifts indicated by the national census.Guarantee the turnover of the majority of congressional seats.Make sure each state’s congressional delegation exactly mirrors its residents’ party affiliation.Determine which party’s leader will be named Speaker of the House.Increase the number of female and minority members of Congress.
58 I only II only I and II only II and III only I, II, and IV only Which of the following correctly describes congressional committees? I. The committee chairpersons always belong to the majority party. II. Seats on each committee are divided between the two major parties in exact proportion to the parties’ representation in Congress. III. They recommend whether Congress should pass various pieces of legislation, and those recommendations are always approved by the full legislative body. IV. When a committee vote results in a tie, the vice president casts the tie-breaking vote.I onlyII onlyI and II onlyII and III onlyI, II, and IV only
59 The difference between a pardon and a reprieve is A pardon lasts ten years, and reprieve lasts one year.A reprieve grants a release from legal punishment, while a pardon postpones it.A pardon grants a release from legal punishment while a reprieve postpones it.Only state governors can issue pardons.Only state governors can issue reprieves.
60 The president executes a “pocket veto” by doing which of the following? Publicly expressing rejection of a billIssuing an executive order invalidating a recently passed billFailing to sign a bill after Congress has adjournedRecalling ambassadors from a peace negotiationRefusing to seat a federal judge whom the Senate has confirmed
61 Which committee in the House of Representatives determines the procedure by which bills are debated and amended?Ways and MeansJudiciaryEthicsRulesGovernment Reform
62 Uncertainty over the limits of presidential power is caused primarily by the fact that The constitutional definition of those powers is broad and unspecificMost people agree that the Constitution places too many limits on presidential powerThe Supreme Court consistently refuses to rule on cases concerning presidential powersConstitutional amendments have greatly increased presidential powersSome states cede more power to their governors than the national government cedes to the president
63 In the past, some states have moved forward the date of their presidential primary elections in an effort toMinimize the cost of running the electionConvince the national government to move forward the date of the general electionRestrict the number of entrants in the presidential raceFocus greater national attention on their state primary racesIncrease the significance of their election results
64 Incumbent members of the House of Representatives more often win reelection than do incumbent senators for all of the following reasons EXCEPTRepresentatives’ constituents more often belong to the representative’s partySenators have more political power than representatives, and Senate races are accordingly contested more aggressivelyRepresentatives may use their franking privilege whereas Senators cannotRepresentatives more often run uncontestedThe fact that Senate races are held statewide generates more media coverage and thus more public awareness
65 A member of the president’s cabinet is said to have “gone native” when that cabinet member Resigns to take a position as a consultant to lobbying groupsCedes control of his or her department to lifelong bureaucrats within the departmentPlaces his or her department’s priorities above the president’sAccepts bribes or expensive favors from businesses regulated by his or her departmentSuggests merging his or her department into another executive department
66 Congress would be required to use the “elastic clause” of the Constitution to Change citizenship requirementsImpose workplace safety standardsIncrease tax ratesAuthorize the treasury to print moneyDeclare war
67 The rules governing the electoral college make it especially important for presidential candidates toWin as many states as possible, regardless of the size of statesSpend most of their time campaigning in the SouthCampaign most aggressively among those who will be chosen as electorsConcentrate their campaign efforts on “battleground” statesConcentrate on those states in which they are farthest behind, to reduce the margin of their eventual loss in that state
68 The largest portion of the federal budget covers the costs of National defenseSocial welfare programsInterest on the national debtEntitlement programsTax collection
69 Which of the following is true of the federal court system? The creation of new federal courts requires a constitutional amendmentThe creation of new federal courts requires the unanimous consent of all 50 statesThe Supreme Court has the sole power to create new federal courtsCongress has the power to create federal courtsThe number of federal courts is fixed by the Constitution and cannot be changed
70 The line-item veto was found unconstitutional because It gave executive powers to the legislatureIt gave legislative powers to the bureaucracyIt gave legislative powers to the presidentIt delegated too many powers to the statesIt permitted the Senate to use judicial review to reverse the House
71 The War Powers Act of 1974 represent an effort by Congress to limit the powers of the Joint Chiefs of StaffHouse Ways and Means CommitteeCentral Intelligence AgencySecretary of defensepresident
72 The amount of access cabinet secretaries have to the president is most likely to be controlled by theVice presidentChief of staffNational security advisorChair of the Federal Reserve BoardPresident’s press secretary
73 I only I and II only I and III only II and III only Under which of the following circumstances does a president usually experience a reduction in political power? I. The president is in the final two years of his or her second term. II. The number and severity of international crises in increasing. III. Different parties control Congress and the White House. IV. The economy is strong and the president’s approval ratings are high.I onlyI and II onlyI and III onlyII and III onlyII, III, and IV only
74 Which of the following is true of federal judges? They serve four-year terms that coincide with the presidential termThey are approved for life and can only be removed by impeachmentThey are elected by Congress and serve ten-year termsThey are appointed for life and cannot be removed from officeThey are appointed by the Supreme Court to life terms
75 Which of the following is true of Congressional redistricting? The responsibility for redrawing congressional districts belongs to congressional committeesIt is an uncontroversial process because it has few political ramificationsIt occurs every ten years to reflect changes in population according to the censusThe Supreme Court has rules that legislators may not consider racial demographics when redrawing districtsWhen redrawing districts, legislators’ chief concern is to maintain the integrity of neighborhoods
77 “We conclude that in the field of education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” The Supreme Court issued this opinion in which of the following cases?Gideon v. WainwrightMarbury v. MadisonEngel v. WhiteRegents of University of California v. BakkeBrown v. Board of Education
78 Which of the following describe limitations that may constitutionally be placed on freedoms of speech and press. I. Under no circumstances may the government limit speech or press. II. The government may censor the press in the interest of national security. III. The government may outlaw obscene publications. IV. The government may prevent individuals from engaging in “offensive” speech.I onlyII onlyII and III onlyIII and IV onlyII, III, and IV only
79 A constitutional amendment would be required to ban flag burning because the activity is currently protected by the right toDue processAssemblyFree exercise of religionProtection against confiscation of private propertyFree speech
80 The Supreme Court’s decision in Miranda v The Supreme Court’s decision in Miranda v. Arizona was based mainly on theConstitutional prohibition of ex post facto lawsIncorporation of the 5th Amendment through the due process of the 14th Amendment8th Amendment restriction against cruel and unusual punishmentAbolition of slavery by the 13th AmendmentFull faith and credit clause of the Constitution
81 The Supreme Court has used the practice of selective incorporation to Limit the number of appeals filed by defendants in state courtsExtend voting rights to racial minorities and womenApply most Bill of Rights protections to state lawHasten the integration of public schoolsPrevent the states from calling a constitutional convention
82 Which of the following most accurately describes the right of American citizens to privacy? It is determined entirely by the states on a case-by-case basis.It is explicitly granted in the Preamble to the Constitution.The Supreme Court has ruled it is implied by the Bill of Rights.Common law requires the government to respect it.Americans don’t have it, but the government rarely violates individuals’ privacy because it is not in their interest.
83 The government promotes preferential treatment for members of groups Enter answer text... that have historically suffered from discrimination by means ofThe New FederalismAffirmative action programsSocial Security benefitsBills of attainderGerrymandering
84 The exclusionary rule was established to Create “separate but equal” facilities to facilitate racial segregationAllow private organizations to restrict their membershipsLimit the government’s ability to use illegally obtained evidenceDeny control of interstate commerce to the statesProvide the president with greater independence in negotiating foreign policy
85 In Gideon v. Wainwright, the Supreme Court ruled that criminal defendants in state cases have the rightRepresentation by an attorneyNot to incriminate themselvesTo a speedy trialNot to be punished excessivelyTo a jury trial
86 The Supreme Court has used the 14th Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state law by citing the amendment’sProhibition on unreasonable search and seizureDue process clauseGuarantee of privacy rightsAbolition of slavery“reserved powers” provision
87 The Constitution and its amendments expressly prohibit all of the following EXCEPT SlaveryDouble jeopardyCruel and unusual punishmentUnreasonable searches and seizuresSex discrimination in employment
88 In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court established which of the following principles? A school official can search a student for drugsEveryone must go to school until the age of 16Tuition for private schools cannot be tax deductibleSeparation of students by race, even in equally good schools, is unconstitutionalA moment of silence at the beginning of the school day is allowable under the 1st Amendment