Triangular Trade In the 18 th Century, ships traveled in a triangular route which was broken into three legs. In the first leg, ships would leave New York or Boston and sail to Western Africa. Rum and iron were traded for gold and slaves.
The Middle Passage The second leg of the triangle would be known as the Middle Passage. Middle Passage → leg of the triangle that brought the enslaved Africans to the West Indies and the Caribbean where they were exchanged for molasses.
Middle Passage (cont.) The Middle Passage was by far the worst for the slaves. They were chained in place, poorly fed and abused in many cases. On the last leg of the trip, the molasses was taken back to New York and converted into rum.
Slavery in the West Indies Slaves were put to work on the sugar plantations. Survivors of the work on the sugar plantations were usually resold as 'seasoned' slaves.
Speaking Out Against Slavery Quakers → Puritanical group that petitioned England to outlaw slavery. Many people wrote about the horrors of the Middle Passage which helped in bringing the abuses of slavery to light.
Revolt in Haiti Toussaint L'Overture would lead a revolt against his French captors and help free them from colonial rule. Overture himself would die of yellow fever eventually but his example would serve as a cautionary tale to other slave-using countries.
Results The British would outlaw the slave trade in 1807 out of fear of a crippling uprising. The British would end slavery altogether in 1834 on the basis of its immorality. France freed its slaves in 1848. Spain waited until 1873 to free its slaves in Puerto Rico and 1888 to free them in Cuba
Slavery in North America Slaves from Africa arrived in Virginia in 1619. Workload would be manageable until the growth of the cotton trade. With the advent of the cotton trade, slavery became worse in America.
Slavery in North America Slaves outnumbered their Southern masters by a large amount and due to this growth the Slave Codes were passed. Slave Codes → laws that prohibited slaves from owning weapons, learning to read, meeting in groups and going anywhere without permission.
Results The U.S. Constitution would prohibit the slave trade in 1808 but it would not be until the Civil War when slavery would end. Civil War → war fought between the Northern territories and Southern territories (Union and Confederacy respectively) from 1861-1865. 13 th Amendment → ended slavery in the U.S.. 14 th Amendment → granted due process to former slaves. 15 th Amendment → gave African-Americans the right to vote.