Presentation on theme: "Investigative Design Basics Activity Tahoma Jr. High 8 th Grade Science Maple Valley, WA."— Presentation transcript:
Investigative Design Basics Activity Tahoma Jr. High 8 th Grade Science Maple Valley, WA
Investigative Design AKA “The Scientific Method” is simply a logical method for problem-solving. It is NOT just used in science.
We use it all the time in everyday life and don’t even realize it… because it’s simple and logical. I wonder… if I change my hair color will people notice me more?
I wonder… if I put more sugar on my cereal, will it taste better?
I wonder… if I use Tide detergent will it get stains out better than Surf ?
I wonder… if I use Axe body spray, will girls hang around me more?
Even animals use it – because it’s simple “Cause and Effect” happening. Animal: “I wonder… if I run across the road right now, will I get to the other side OK?”
You see, the Scientific Method isn’t anything special. The only thing that is special is HOW YOU DO IT. And everyone has to do it in the same way to be able to compare results.
You know, our courts of law have a VERY specific way of doing things to arrive at a “proper” Conclusion (innocent or guilty). Lawyers spend YEARS trying to learn how to make the process work for them (and against their opponent).
And science does the same exact thing as courts of law. It presents evidence everyone can see… and then makes the best Conclusion possible based on that evidence.
So… let’s review the Steps of the Scientific Method. Most commonly there are 5 (though you may see 6-8 or more depending on how the other steps are split up)
Step 1: Ask A Question (or identify a Problem) You see something happen. You wonder if you could change the outcome. (of course you then do some background research or draw from past experience to learn more about the situation).
Step 2: form a Hypothesis (or make a Prediction) Here’s where you setup “IF I change one thing about the situation, THEN something new will happen.” Tahoma adds a “BECAUSE” part to offer a science reason this would happen.
Step 3: do an Experiment First thing you have to do is identify the important Materials needed like a list of Ingredients on a cooking recipe Next is have a clear set of Step-By-Step instructions anyone can follow and NOT make a mistake just like cooking instructions
Experiments are not all that complicated. You take measurements You change ONE thing You take new measurements The KEYS to doing a good experiment are: 1. Keep it simple 2. explain how to use the equipment (especially the measuring tool) 3. do the experiment more than once
Step 4: record Data (or Results) The only thing you need to do here is have an organized way of recording the data so there’s no confusion about what it is saying. Data Tables work very well IF you set them up AND label them properly
Step 5: arrive at a Conclusion (based on the data you collected) A good Conclusion is like a “Summary” of the whole experiment and whether your Hypothesis was correct or not ( and this will answer your original question )
It sounds like a lot – but it’s really not AND… if you pay attention to the details of HOW to do it right – after the first couple times it starts to make sense and becomes much easier – and eventually becomes a Habit of Mind.
This activity deals with the most important process between the first two Steps – because if this is NOT done correctly, everything after that is useless and wasted.
We need to go from a simple Question to a proper Hypothesis that will answer that Question. Many students have trouble with this – so we’re going to first practice in a group with simple situations.
You will be given Question To Answer, which also describes a situation. You need to set up a Cause & Effect Test by: 1. Identifying the Manipulated Variable (MV) (the one “Cause” that you will change or test) 2. Identifying the Responding Variable (RV) (the “Effect”, measurements showing change)
Once you have the MV and RV figured out, you then just simply plug them into the Tahoma IF…, THEN… BECAUSE… format. IF ( MV ) THEN ( RV ) BECAUSE ( reasonable science reason for why that would happen ) Let’s work through and example before we cut your group loose on your own… no… not that guy “Example”… an example problem!
QUESTION: Will wearing dark clothes on a sunny day make me feel warmer? Obviously it’s the color of clothes you will change/test (MV)… and temperature of the skin (RV) can be measured by a thermometer. (in science we use MEASURABLE NUMBERS to avoid misinterpretation - what’s hot to one person may not be to another, but 95°F is the same everywhere in the Universe!)
So… your Hypothesis would be: IF I change my clothes’ color from white to black, THEN my skin temperature will increase BECAUSE dark colors absorb light more than light colors. You may end up with some wording differences, BUT… the basic parts are still: MV – changing color from light to dark RV – measuring temperature of body Because… (why color is affecting temperature)
O.K. – you think you’ve got how it works? 1. Get a piece of blank paper (supplied) and write the names of the people in your group and Period at the top right. 2. Work together to come up with ONE Hypothesis you think will work and write it next to each Question #. 3. When done writing Hypothesis, go to the next slide to see a good example and see if it matches closely to yours. The MV and RV need to be “the same” at least. DO AS MANY AS YOU CAN WITH THE TIME GIVEN & NO PEEKING AT NEXT SLIDE UNTIL YOUR HYPOTHESIS IS COMPLETELY WRITTEN. (they will be collected)
QUESTION 1: Will my dog get heavier if I feed him “people” food?
HYPOTHESIS: IF my dog eats “people” food instead of dog food, THEN his weight will increase BECAUSE there is more fat in “people” food than dog food.
QUESTION 2: Why does it always seem to rain right after I wash my car?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I wash my car THEN it will rain BECAUSE the water evaporates and then condenses right over my car.
QUESTION 3: Would I catch more fish using fancy lures or regular worms? ? ? or
HYPOTHESIS: IF worms are used instead of lures THEN more fish will be caught BECAUSE worms are totally natural and lures might not look real to the fish.
QUESTION 4: Would adding salt make my French fries less soggy?
HYPOTHESIS: IF salt is added after cooking French fries THEN they will not be as wet BECAUSE all chemical salts absorb moisture.
HYPOTHESIS: IF I do all the HomeWork (which is graded only on effort and being on-time) THEN my grade will improve BECAUSE there are a lot of HomeWork points used to calculate my grade.
QUESTION 6: Why didn’t I know there was HomeWork due after being absent? BTW – we don’t accept any Excuses (unless it involves a hospital stay!) ; ) So don’t even bother thinking up or offering one…
HYPOTHESIS: IF I use the web site when I am absent to stay current THEN I will get the easy points for HomeWork on the due date BECAUSE everything I need is on the web site. * or checking in with a Study Buddy you have in each class, or seeing teacher next day can work too
QUESTION 7: How can I improve my test scores in science?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I go through the online PowerPoints again before the test THEN my test scores will improve BECAUSE the PowerPoints not only have information like the HandOuts – but also pictures and other helpful information. *Same thing goes for journal entry and exit questions
QUESTION 8: Why do I keep getting in trouble at school?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I choose to follow the reasonable school rules instead of trying to show off for my friends THEN I will not get into as much trouble BECAUSE the rules are there to make school a much better place to work for everyone.
QUESTION 9: Why does it always seem like I have too much HomeWork to do all the time?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I do my HomeWork right away in the small bunches when it’s given out THEN it won’t have a chance to pile up and become unmanageable BECAUSE doing it will become a regular easy routine instead of a periodic major crisis.
QUESTION 10: I wonder if keeping my tire inflated properly will improve my gas mileage?
HYPOTHESIS: IF keep my tires inflated at the proper pressure THEN I will get the best gas mileage BECAUSE they were designed to be used at certain pressures in order to roll more smoothly.
QUESTION 11: How can I reduce the chances of getting sick?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I wash my hands right before eating lunch THEN I will not get sick as often BECAUSE hands touch lots of surfaces that have germs on them (especially at school).
QUESTION 12: How can I improve my “brain power” at school?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I eat something for breakfast THEN I will understand things better in class BECAUSE my brain will have “fuel” to work better. * also getting a good night’s sleep, not being rushed in the morning and forgetting something (have your stuff ready to go the night before) and coming to school with a positive attitude have proven very helpful
QUESTION 13: What e-mail address should I use for anything related to school?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I use my go.tahoma address for all school things THEN teachers will always know how to reply BECAUSE even if I type it in wrong, they can still tell who I am and look it up on Skyward. * ALWAYS be extra careful entering e-mail addresses and double-check they are correct – it’s always good to send a quick reply you got something important so the other person isn’t wondering if something went wrong (“got it” is all that’s needed to be sure on both ends) ALSO – by using go.tahoma for all school things, it helps you keep work things separate and easy to see
QUESTION 14: Will using a different toothpaste reduce how many cavities I get?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I use Crest instead of Aquafresh toothpaste THEN I will get fewer cavities BECAUSE Crest has better chemicals that kill bacteria which cause cavities.
QUESTION 15: Why is it so important to do Science Journals in a certain way?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I do not fill out my Journal properly THEN I will not get as many points as I could BECAUSE other students will not know how to grade it properly or find what needs to be graded. * many things in life require you to do them the same way as everyone else so there’s no confusion or mistakes made: filling out job application, filing taxes, driving a car, etc.
QUESTION 16: How will I be able to buy the car I really want?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I get good grades THEN I will make more money BECAUSE employers will hire me knowing I am dependable and hard working.
QUESTION 17: How can I make sure I have my science homework on my table when the bell rings to get maximum points?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I always put my completed HomeWork in the same place THEN I will be able to easily find it before the bell rings BECAUSE I will have only one place to look for it.
QUESTION 18: What is the best way to form project groups? How did you choose teams for sports??
HYPOTHESIS: IF I pick the best qualified to do the task (instead of just picking my friends) THEN I will have less frustration BECAUSE the work will get done in a much better way.
QUESTION 19: How can I avoid losing friends who I chose to be in my projects?
HYPOTHESIS: IF all of us in the group do what we said we would do when we said we would do it THEN no one will get upset with each other BECAUSE the work will be done on time.
QUESTION 20: How can I have the most fun in science class?
HYPOTHESIS: IF I do what the teacher says when I am supposed to THEN I will I have more fun BECAUSE I will not make mistakes or miss out on learning opportunities. end show * If you have gotten this far – WELL DONE ! (you now have some free time with your group, but don’t get too loud)