Ethos, Pathos, Logos Do ethos, pathos, and logos need to be related to the thesis? Yes - If you think the author did a good job using e/p/l to effectively make their point, you’ll be supporting that claim and giving example from that standpoint. And vice-versa for ineffective arguments An argument can be effective but still have some bad points - most will. Don’t hesitate to talk about those.
Lack of ethos, pathos, logos What if my paper doesn’t have any ethos/pathos/logos? If there is an argument, there is logos - somewhere. If there is an author, there is ethos - somewhere. If there are words other than cold, academic speech - “obliterated” where something less loaded could be used, that is pathos
Effective or Ineffective? How do I know if an argument is or isn’t effective? Need to put aside personal opinion - that can easily taint your judgementµ Go by the use of appeals. Is it TOO emotional? Is ethos as glaring as a president putting on a blue collar shirt and rolling up his sleeves to appeal to the working class? Or is it legitimate?
Which is easier? Is it easier to analyze something you agree with or something you disagree with? If you agree with it, you will be less likely to notice problems - “preaching to the choir.” If you disagree, you may find flaws where flaws do not exist
Having problems with Ethos Anything that makes the author sound good Any titles, history, MA MFA PHD, Etc. Anywhere the author tries to relate his/her experiences to the reader’s in any way Any words that appeal to a certain group Words like “us, we, fellow Americans, etc. Conversational tone rather than academic
Fallacies Don’t focus the paper only on fallacies Talk about fallacies in the Logos/Logical argument section - you may also mention them near your thesis if the author uses many of them and it really hurts/helps the paper They can add to an argument - many effective papers use terrible logic. Productive use of fallacies is a fine art that has gotten many people into positions of power.
What if there is very little of one argument type? There should be at least two of each in your paper Talk some about what the author should have done in this case Talk about how this helped/hurt the argument - perhaps not appealing to the audience helped make a very logical argument more powerful by drawing more attention to statistics
Idea Generation - Length! Go through your article line by line before you write - mark up a list on the article itself of the ethos, pathos, logos, audience, author, tone, bias, fallacies, argument type, etc. Don’t force yourself to write sequentially - NO great writer/author writes perfectly from “Once upon a time” to “The end.” Force yourself to find at least 2-3 examples of each appeal. You may think it’s silly, but you may surprise yourself!
Why the hell are we writing this? Critical thinking skills Skills/Ideas will be used in other 105 papers Skills/Ideas will be used in ALL classes that need papers - and many will. Helps with awareness of media, culture, advertising, politics, internet, etc.
Editing for Clarity P. 339/Section 10 in spiral bound book
Redundancies Students living in close proximity in the dorms need to cooperate together if they want to live in harmony. Students living in the dorms need to cooperate to live in harmony.
Repetition The children enjoyed watching television more than they enjoyed reading books The children enjoyed watching television more than reading books
Wordy to Concise It is a common desire to use long, academic- sounding phrases in place of single-word alternatives – but in reality, the concise choice is the best choice At this point in time = Now In order to = To For the purpose of = to In the event that = If
Missing words Missing words can change the meaning of a sentence - make sure subjects, verbs, etc. all agree The gang members neither cooperated nor listened to the authorities The gang members neither cooperate with not listened to the authorities
Misplaced Modifiers The hikers watched the storm gathering force from the cabin’s porch Leaking in the basement, I found a pipe From the cabin’s porch, the hikers watched the storm gathering. I found a pipe leaking in the basement
Be assertive This seems like it might be an example of a logical fallacy… This is a logical fallacy.
Author in the paper Do not use “I” The paper’s existence implies an author already, as well as an opinion Therefore, you don’t need “In my opinion” either.