Twentieth-Century Fertility Rate in France Liz Beckert Rebecca Brandt Amy Latham
Thesis Three of the main factors responsible for the decline in France’s fertility rate are: Increase in educationIncrease in education Health care advancementsHealth care advancements Women in the workforceWomen in the workforce
France’s Fertility Rate vs. Western Europe France’s current fertility rate is 1.95 Replacement level is 2.1
Births per 1000 women In 1972, births per 1000 women, between the ages of 15 and 19, was 29. In 1995, the number was reduced to 7.
EDUCATION & Declining Fertility Rate Primary Schooling In 1910, only women over the age of 11 were less numerous than men In 1954, only women over the age of 15 were less numerous than men In 1975, only women over the age of 20 were less numerous than men
Increases in Women’s Primary Education Less than 80% in 1988
Influences of Higher Education Between the ages of 20-24: With higher levels of education, only 1% have a child With lower levels of education, about 20% have a child
2001 Statistics 2% of adolescent women who are involved in academic programs have gotten pregnant 15% of adolescent women who are only involved in vocational schools have gotten pregnant
Contraceptives Nearly 60% of French women between the ages of 15-19 used the pill last time they had sex About 80% of French women use some type of contraceptive
Medical Advances Abortion RU-486 Artificial Insemination
Abortion Rates In 1979, France legalized abortion In 1982, 50% of pregnancies outside of marriage were terminated by abortion in Paris In 1996, for every 35 conceptions, only around 10 children were born
Abortions In France Almost the entire country of France has over an 11% abortion rate
RU-486 “The Morning After Pill” RU-486 was introduced to France in 1989 Since then, 100,000 French women have used it
Artificial Insemination Allowed women to receive sperm from men who were not their husbands Combined with: - the usage of contraceptives - the rights of abortion - and the addition of RU-486 artificial insemination became an option for women who wanted to put off pregnancy until later in life
The Origins of French Women’s Increased Activity in the Workforce
Early Twentieth Century War Between 1914 and 1918, women entered the work force in large numbers.
Early Twentieth Century War Case Study Renault, France FT-17 Tanks
EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY WAR Case Study Renault, France Women were 4% of general workforce in 1914. Women were 4% of general workforce in 1914. Increased by 32% by 1918. Increased by 32% by 1918.
National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies 1999 Census Percentage of Women over 15 years of age that are in the workforce. 36.3% in 1962. 36.3% in 1962. 47.6% in 1998. 47.6% in 1998.
Female Participation Rates in the Labor Force from 1962-1990
France in comparison to Western Europe (1997) 48.2%: French women’s activity rate in the workforce 48.2%: French women’s activity rate in the workforce European Union’s average was 3% lower at 45.6% European Union’s average was 3% lower at 45.6% “La Defense Business District”
Affects of Health Advances on the Labor Force A dignitary of the French Great Feminine Lodge “the wish of women … to feel free to choose whether or not to have children”
Affects of Women’s Education on the Workforce “Having a [B.A.] or higher facilitated the re-entry into paid work compared with women of primary education. “Having a [B.A.] or higher facilitated the re-entry into paid work compared with women of primary education. In contrast, having no diploma In contrast, having no diploma decreased the risk of returning decreased the risk of returning to work.” to work.” Therefore, with the increase Therefore, with the increase of women’s education there is of women’s education there is a simultaneous increase of women’s a simultaneous increase of women’s activity in the work force. activity in the work force.
Financial Support: Affects of 1977 Government Intervention Day care centers Day care centers Parental Leaves Parental Leaves
Implications of Women’s Labor Activities on the fertility rate Less time means less babies! Less time means less babies!
Average Score [standard deviation in parenteses] Full-time Employed Mother Part-time Employed Mother Overall Preparing Evening Meals 3.8 [1.2] 4.6 [0.7] 4.1 [0.9] Household Shopping 3.6 [1.0] 4.2 [0.8] 3.9 [0.9] Washing Dishes 3.5[0.8] 3.2 [1.1] 3.3 [0.9] Ironing4.9[0.3] 4.5 [0.8] 4.7 [0.5] Washing Clothes 4.7[0.6] 4.5 [0.7] 4.6 [0.7] Vacuuming3.7[0.9] 3.9 [1.0] 3.8 [0.9] Dusting and Cleaning 3.9[0.9] 4.0 [0.9] 3.9 [0.9] KEY: 1= father only, 2=father more than mother, 3=shared, 4=mother more than father, 5=mother only Divisions of Domestic Labor Between Dual Earner Married Couples with Children
Women perform the majority of the domestic labor….. While also employed in the work force…. Whether part-time or full-time…
Average score [standard deviation in parentheses] Full-time Employed Mother Part-time Employed Mother Overall Bathing 3.8 [1.0] 3.9 [0.9] Dressing/undres sing 3.9 [0.8] 3.8 [0.9] Nappy Changing 3.5 [0.8] 4 [0.8] 3.7 [0.8] Preparing Food 4 [0.7] 4.5 [0.5] 4.2 [0.6] Taking To/From School 3.6 [0.9] 3.9 [1.2] 3.8 [1.0] Play& & Educational Activities 3.4 [0.9] 4.3 [1.0] 3.9 [0.9] Tidying Up After 3.8 [0.8] 3.9 [0.9] 3.9 [0.8] KEY: 1=father only, 2=father more than mother, 3=shared, 4=mother more than father, 5=mother only Division of Childcare Tasks Between Dual Earner Married Couples With Children 1995
Other Ways Woman’s Labor Activity Has Influenced Fertility Rates “opportunity costs [are] relatively low for short interruptions” “opportunity costs [are] relatively low for short interruptions” -- Under the initial implication in 1977, France had one of the lowest maternity leaves in Europe. of the lowest maternity leaves in Europe. however: “human capital depreciates however: “human capital depreciates when inactivity lasts” when inactivity lasts”
Increases of Governmental Financial Support Paid maternity and parental leaves Paid maternity and parental leaves All-day childcare All-day childcare Child benefits, and family and housing allowances Child benefits, and family and housing allowances
Stabilized Fertility Rate 1940s = 2.41 children/woman 1940s = 2.41 children/woman 1960 = 2.09 children/woman 1960 = 2.09 children/woman 1997 = 1.69 children/woman 1997 = 1.69 children/woman CURRENT = 1.95 CURRENT = 1.95 Only in recent years has the fertility rate in France begun to stabilize around the replacement rate of 2.1 children/woman. Only in recent years has the fertility rate in France begun to stabilize around the replacement rate of 2.1 children/woman.
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