2Dependency Load Dependency Ratio A measure of the portion of the national population that is dependent – not actively employed (children, youth, seniors)Dependency RatioNumerical comparison of the average # of dependents for every 100 persons of working age (14-65 yrs)
3Life Expectancy Pension Fund Average age a person is expected to live Calculated differently for males and femalesIndicator of living standardsPension Fund$ from income that people deposit into a group savings account, often with further contributions from employers/government and is drawn out after retirement
4Retirement Savings Plan Individual savings plan which people save $ for retirementEncouraged by a tax break from the governmentEcotourismType of travel based on the enjoyment on nature
9Fertility Fecundity Refers to reproduction A woman is fertile if she has born, or is bearing, offspringFecundityThe ability to reproduceOnce a female reaches menarche, she is fecund
10Fertility Rates Developed World The actual number of children had by womenDeveloped WorldCountries that are industrialized, modern, and wealthy – often countries in North America, Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand
11Proximate Determinants Developing WorldCountries that are non-industrialized and where citizens practice more traditional lifestylesProximate DeterminantsThe biological and behavioural factors through which social, economic, and environmental variables affect fertility
12Replacement LevelA population term referring to the number of births required to maintain a stable populationIf the fertility rate is lower than the replacement level, what will happen to the population?If the fertility rate is higher that the replacement level, will the population increase or decrease?
13With specific examples, explain how fertility rates are changing in the world. Globally, on the decline.Developed world’s population is shrinkingOnly US is replacing its population (immigration and fertility)Germany, Italy, Sweden all have shrinking populations
14CanadaFertility rate is expected to fall from 1.54 to 1.48 births per woman in the next five yearsOnly NWT and Nunavut show birthrates above the replacement level
15What are some factors that couples may want to have in place before having children?
16Why do fewer women breastfeed in developed societies than in developing societies? What impact does this have on fecundity?Notion that individuals are expected to be autonomous (independent)Babies expected to sleep in own cribs, play alone, and breast fed for only a few monthsMaternity leave is short in US (6-8 weeks)Infants benefit greatly from breast milk – meets their nutritional needs, immunizes against disease, improves digestion and body systems, reduces risk of allergies, economical
17Breast-feeding has a contraceptive effect on the woman Release of prolactin (pituitary hormone that regulates production of progesterone) and inhibits ovulation
18Provide examples of government policies around the world designed to increase or decrease family size.Russia – considering banning abortion and imposing a childlessness tax to increase populationChina – 1979 imposed a one-couple, one-child policy to reduce population growthQuebec – cash bonus to couples for each child born in an attempt to increase francophone population - withdrawn
19Bangladesh – educated and delivered contraceptive to women Canada - Government funded family planning programs to decrease teen pregnancySex educationPublic health departmentsEasier access to contraceptiveBangladesh – educated and delivered contraceptive to womenFamily planning programs need to be delivered carefully – Central and South America – push for lower fertility created very high rates of illegal abortions – horrendous health consequences
20How do cultural norms affect fertility rates? Overt (open)Covert (implied)China – Walking marriages – freedom is important – couples do not want to live together (crowded)To obtain an apartment, must be marriedMany women not wanting childrenDisassociation from traditional culture
21Hong Kong – Tradition – wanting to give birth in year of the dragon – divinity and good fortune – children will be bright, smart and sensitiveOtherwise, Hong Kong has lowest fertility rate in the worldIsrael – marriages can be dissolved after 10 years of childlessness (seen as tragic) – government subsidizes fertility treatments – more fertility clinics per capita