Presentation on theme: "Effects of the Aging Baby Boomers. Dependency Load A measure of the portion of the national population that is dependent – not actively employed (children,"— Presentation transcript:
Effects of the Aging Baby Boomers
Dependency Load A measure of the portion of the national population that is dependent – not actively employed (children, youth, seniors) Dependency Ratio Numerical comparison of the average # of dependents for every 100 persons of working age (14-65 yrs)
Life Expectancy Average age a person is expected to live – Calculated differently for males and females – Indicator of living standards Pension Fund $ from income that people deposit into a group savings account, often with further contributions from employers/government and is drawn out after retirement
Retirement Savings Plan Individual savings plan which people save $ for retirement – Encouraged by a tax break from the government Ecotourism Type of travel based on the enjoyment on nature
Effects of an aging boomer population
Do you feel that the aging baby boomers will become a burden for your generation in the future?
Business Plan for Aging Boomers
Fertility and Fecundity
Fertility Refers to reproduction A woman is fertile if she has born, or is bearing, offspring Fecundity The ability to reproduce Once a female reaches menarche, she is fecund
Fertility Rates The actual number of children had by women Developed World Countries that are industrialized, modern, and wealthy – often countries in North America, Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand
Developing World Countries that are non-industrialized and where citizens practice more traditional lifestyles Proximate Determinants The biological and behavioural factors through which social, economic, and environmental variables affect fertility
Replacement Level A population term referring to the number of births required to maintain a stable population 1.If the fertility rate is lower than the replacement level, what will happen to the population? 2.If the fertility rate is higher that the replacement level, will the population increase or decrease?
With specific examples, explain how fertility rates are changing in the world. Globally, on the decline. Developed world’s population is shrinking – Only US is replacing its population (immigration and fertility) Germany, Italy, Sweden all have shrinking populations
Canada Fertility rate is expected to fall from 1.54 to 1.48 births per woman in the next five years Only NWT and Nunavut show birthrates above the replacement level
What are some factors that couples may want to have in place before having children?
Why do fewer women breastfeed in developed societies than in developing societies? What impact does this have on fecundity? Notion that individuals are expected to be autonomous (independent) Babies expected to sleep in own cribs, play alone, and breast fed for only a few months Maternity leave is short in US (6-8 weeks) Infants benefit greatly from breast milk – meets their nutritional needs, immunizes against disease, improves digestion and body systems, reduces risk of allergies, economical
Breast-feeding has a contraceptive effect on the woman Release of prolactin (pituitary hormone that regulates production of progesterone) and inhibits ovulation
Provide examples of government policies around the world designed to increase or decrease family size. Russia – considering banning abortion and imposing a childlessness tax to increase population China – 1979 imposed a one-couple, one-child policy to reduce population growth Quebec – cash bonus to couples for each child born in an attempt to increase francophone population - withdrawn
Canada - Government funded family planning programs to decrease teen pregnancy – Sex education – Public health departments – Easier access to contraceptive Bangladesh – educated and delivered contraceptive to women Family planning programs need to be delivered carefully – Central and South America – push for lower fertility created very high rates of illegal abortions – horrendous health consequences
How do cultural norms affect fertility rates? Overt (open) Covert (implied) China – Walking marriages – freedom is important – couples do not want to live together (crowded) – To obtain an apartment, must be married – Many women not wanting children – Disassociation from traditional culture
Hong Kong – Tradition – wanting to give birth in year of the dragon – divinity and good fortune – children will be bright, smart and sensitive Otherwise, Hong Kong has lowest fertility rate in the world Israel – marriages can be dissolved after 10 years of childlessness (seen as tragic) – government subsidizes fertility treatments – more fertility clinics per capita