SETTING THE SCENE 1050 C.E. – 1300 C.E. Warm, mild climate Population grows Trade expands Cities grow
1315: IT ALL GOES WRONG Non-stop rain spring through fall Flooding Windstorms Harsh, cold winters
….AND EVEN MORE WRONG Crops are ruined Great Famine of 1315-22 (N. Europe) Reduced population by 10-15% Cattle and sheep disease 1318-20 Europe-wide famine 1335-36 Hundred Years War begins 1337 I feel baaaad!
Hi. I’m a bacterium http://www.travelchinaguide.com/images/map/china/china-map-7.jpg
Unstoppable! Late 1320s: Plague breaks out in Gobi desert Spreads in all directions China’s population drops by 30% in 14 th Century Spreads along trade routes Arrived in Constantinople 1345 Arrived in Italy and Spain 1347
www.insecta-inspecta.com/ fleas/bdeath/Black.html Norway Sweden Poland Denmark Spain France Germany Austria Italy England Greece Russia THE SPREAD OF THE PLAGUE THROUGHOUT EUROPE 1347-1350
AND NOW, A WORD FROM OUR SPONSOR Epidemic Localized outbreak of a disease –Epi : among –Demos : people Pandemic Worldwide outbreak of a disease –Pan: all –Demos: people
Xenopsylla Cheopis Flee the flea!! Lives on rats, feeds on blood Flea barf! Ick!
BUBONIC PLAGUE Fever Chills Feel sick Muscles ache Bad headache Swollen, painful “buboes” in neck, armpit, groin
Position of lymph nodes in the body. Buboes are swollen lymph nodes.
PLAGUE SORE OR BUBOE http://www.insecta-inspecta.com/fleas/bdeath/Black.html
PNEUMONIC PLAGUE Disease in lungs Highly contagious High fever Chills Severe headache Rapid heartbeat Cough up blood Die w/in 48 hrs. 100% mortality rate if untreated http://www.nature.com/genomics/images/y_pestis.jpg Yersinia Pestis
SEPTICEMIC PLAGUE Bacteria enters bloodstream Fever Extreme illness Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach ache Low blood pressure Blood won’t clot Organ systems fail 100% mortality if left untreated
HOW BAD WAS IT? KILLED: 1/3-1/2 of Europe’s population in two years 500-600 people per day in Venice. 50% of the population of Avignon, France www.bbc.co.uk/.../britain/ lmid_black_death.shtml
In modern terms this would mean: 50% of Seattle’s population is 304,330 If 600 BTMS students died in one night, there would be 45 students left at the school. 1/3 of US population: 105,804,333
MEDIEVAL THEORIES “In the great sea near India the waters boiled and heaved and a stinking mist arose which, drifting across the land, brought death with it. Reptiles and frogs were bred from the corruption and, in turn, spread contagion.” University of Paris October 1348
Plague Arrows Some believed heavenly arrows were shot down at sinful people, giving them the plague. Plague was seen as a punishment sent from God.
SELF-DEFENSE? Amulets worn around the neck Packets of sweet- smelling herbs
MEDIEVAL 911 The Beak Doctor Mask full of sweet herbs Stick to feel your pulse Cloak and hat to protect him. He’ll probably die anyway. http://www.dodedans.com/E1-dance-of-death.htm
DON’T BEAT YOURSELF UP ABOUT IT! Flagellants go from town to town. Whip each other and themselves Pope bans them in 1349 members.iglou.com/ gustavus/flesh.html REPENT!!
NOBODY’S SAFE Rumors spread that Jews poisoned the wells to give others the disease. Widespread persecution of Jews 2000 killed in Strassbourg, 12,000 in Mainz, and 600 in Brussels POINTING THE FINGER OF BLAME
Serf’s Up! Not enough serfs left to tend the crops 1/3 of land lies fallow Remaining serfs demand better pay Government powerless to keep serfs down. www.auesd.k12.ca.us/ ev-ain/Prero/Images/serf.gif
The Good News In cities, lack of help caused employers to offer higher wages. Too many supplies and not enough people to buy them caused prices to drop.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS: Shortage of laborers Abandonment of farms and manors Debts not paid Construction stops Machinery not repaired http://sienaitaly.ca/attractions/unfinishednave.html
But Wait…There’s More! Plague returns 1360-1361: The Children’s Plague Third Plague: 1368 (in Northern Europe) and 1374 (in Southern Europe) More plague years: 1361, 62, 63, 64, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 81, 82, 83,84, 90, 99, 1400, 01, 05, 06, 09, 10, 11, 12, 14, 20…
NOW THINGS CHANGE! Population in towns declines Villages abandoned Serfdom disappears – rise of free peasantry Rise of wealthy commoners (merchant class) as nobles struggle financially
DEATH GETS A FACE http://www4.gvsu.edu/wrightd/SPA%20307%20Death/LubeckDance%20of%20Death.jpg
Grave images changed from soothing to…kinda disgusting!. I’M RESTING FOR AWHILE I’M DECAYING FOR AWHILE
Works Cited The Black Death. Insecta-Inspecta. Think Quest. 2000. Web. Jan 2010.. Bruegel, Pieter, the Elder. The Triumph of Death. All That is Interesting. 11 July 2011. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. “China Map.” TravelChinaGuide.com. 1998-2014. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. Clark, Gregory. Microbes and Markets: Was The Black Death An Economic Revolution? U.C. Davis. n.d. Web. 11 Jan 2014. Hagstrom, Martin. Dance of Death. n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. Halsall, Paul Jewish History Sourcebook: The Black Death and the Jews 1348-1349. Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. July 1998. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. “How to Check Your Lymph Nodes.” Plymouth Hospitals. NHS Trust. 2014. Plymouth NHS Trust. 11 Jan. 2014. Knox, E.L. Skip. Europe in the Late Middle Ages: Demographic Crises. Boise State University. n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014. Knox, E.L. Skip. The Black Death. History of Western Civilization. Boise State University. n.d. Web. 11 Jan 2014. Routt, David. The Economic Impact of the Black Death. University of Richmond. 18 Oct. 2013. Web. 11 Jan 2011. “Unfinished Nave of the Sierna Duomo.” Siena Italy Tourist Information and Hotel Guide. Altaviser. n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014.