Presentation on theme: "The Plague 1348 Taylor Stockstad"— Presentation transcript:
1The Plague 1348 Taylor Stockstad "...Such fear and fanciful notions took possession of the living that almost all of them adopted the same cruel policy, which was entirely to avoid the sick and everything belonging to them. By so doing, each one thought he would secure his own safety.” - Giovanni Boccaccio
2There are three forms of the Plague BubonicPneumonicSepticemic
3I will focus on the Bubonic Plague It derives its name from the swellings or buboes.
4Europe first experienced the “Black Death” between 1348 and 1350
5It is believed the plague originated in Asia, and moved west with Mongol armies and traders. And then hit the shores of Italy. Its path of death was generally from south to north and east to west passing through Italy, France, England, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Finland, and eventually reaching Greenland.
6Efforts to Stop the Plague Seemed Useless During the time of the epidemic, the government tried to have medical workers involved trying to prevent the plague. However, most workers quit and turned backs on patients due to the fear of getting the disease themselves.
7It had a devastating affect on Europe The Population decreased by 25% to 50%
8We can still see the memory of its impact today Ring a-round the rosy Pocket full of posies Ashes, ashes! We all fall down! The children suffered mainly due to the lack of care because of families dying from the disease and they were unable to provide for themselves. A common nursery rhyme is proof of this occurrence,
9The reservoir of the plague bacteria is normally rodents The reservoir of the plague bacteria is normally rodents. The transmission of the Plague from Rodents was caused by the Oriental Rat Flea.
10There was a complex cycle of Transmission from flea to human.
11Symptoms of The Bubonic Plague Symptoms normally took around1-7 days to appearSymptoms included:HeadachesNauseaAching jointsFeverVomitingThen. . .
12A Sign of Impending Death Would Appear These signs were swellings, called buboes, that appeared on a victim's neck, armpits or groin.Tumors could range in size from that of an egg to that of an apple. Victims had a life expectancy up to a week. Most individuals died within a three day period of developing the appearance of the tumors.
13All forms were caused by a rod - shaped bacterium called Yersinia pestis.
14The Plague bacteria has the ability to avoid the innate immune response, the body's front line of defense.
15Yersinia Pestis can rapidly kill the host due to it’s machinery. The bacteria can resist phagocytosis by injecting proteins called YOPS (Yersinia Outer Proteins) into macrophages and other immune cells.Thus, it rapidly spreads into the blood stream Reaching to the lymphnodes, where the swelling occurs and killing the host.Most cases the host dies before its specific antibacterial response reacts.
16The Plague still affects the U.S. In the United States during the 1980s plague cases averaged about 18 per year.Most of the cases occurred in persons under 20 years of age.About 1 in 7 persons with plague died.
17World Wide distribution of the Plague in 1998 1,000 to 2,000 cases each yearThe Plague is mainly located in:AsiaExtreme southeastern Europe.Africa (eastern and southern side of the continent)North America (Pacific Coast to the western Great Plains and from Canada southward to Mexico)South America (in the Andean mountain region)
18An Effective Treatment does Exist Today The drugs of choice are streptomycin or gentamycin, but a number of other antibiotics are also effective.A soon as the diagnosis is made, the patient should be isolated, and local and state health departments should be notified.Drug therapy should begin as soon as possible after the laboratory specimens are taken.
19Prevention is an even better approach Eliminating food and shelter for rodents around the households and work areas.Surveillance for plague activity in rodent populations by public health workers.Use of appropriate and licensed insecticides to kill fleas during wild animal plague outbreaks.
20The Plague Epidemic is still a Big Problem in Developing Countries. Rural and urban areas of developing countries often have problems with rat infestation and are put at a higher risk of bubonic plague.And due to the unfair distribution of antibiotics, these countries are unable to receive the simple treatment.
21Unfair Distribution of Antibiotics is the Cause.