Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY (B/C) - SAMPLE TOURNAMENT KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:
ECOLOGY (B/C) - SAMPLE TOURNAMENT KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman
Station A: Food Web 1. Almost all of the energy used by living organisms comes from where? 2. A stable environment should include: why? A. one type of organism B. two types of organism C. at least one plant and one animal D. a wide variety of organisms 3. Which organism represents the highest order consumer in the above diagram? What is the highest order consumer that it represents? 4. What essential part of a food web is not represented on the one above? Why are they so important to the ecosystem?
Station A: Food Web 5.How many food chains are in this food web? List as many as you can. 6.Are there any omnivores on this food web? If so, list them. 7.There are over 1 billion km 3 of water on earth. That is 3.8 trillion gallons of water for every person. So, why should we bother to conserve water and why is the concern about global warming such a big deal? What are the items essential for an organism to survive in any environment? (Div C)
Station B – Energy 11. What is a trophic level? 12.Why do most food chains only have trophic levels? 13. An energy flow pyramid has kcal/sq meter/yr. Which diagram 1, 2, or 3 is an energy flow pyramid? 14. A numbers pyramid represents the actual number of organisms. Which diagram 1, 2, or 3 is a numbers pyramid? It is an acre of bluegrass.
Station B – Energy 15. A biomass pyramid has grams/sq meter. Which diagram 1, 2, or 3 is a biomass pyramid? 16. What is the 10% law for the pyramids? 17. Why does diagram 4 not fit the 10% rule? What types of activities use up the energy at each trophic level? What percent of the producer trophic level is actually available for the first order consumer in each of the pyramids above (figures 1,2, and 3)? (Div C)
Station C – Flow of Energy 21. How does the flow of materials differ from the flow of energy through an ecosystem? 22. The diagram above shows the flow of which chemical? 23. What other chemical cycles are important for life? 24. What kind of atoms are found with carbon in sugars and fats?
Station C – Flow of Energy 25. What kind of atoms are found with nitrogen in amino acids? 26. Which parts of food come from these cycles (raw materials, energy, vitamins, minerals)? 27. What would happen to the flow of materials if decomposers were removed from an ecosystem? Draw the nitrogen cycle. (Division C)
Station D: 31. Which line (red or green) represents the predator? Why? 32. Which line (red or green) represents the prey? Why ? 33. For how long was this study conducted? 34. What was the largest number of the prey during this study? When was the prey population the largest?
Station D: 35.What was the largest number of the predators during this study? When was the predator population the largest? 36. What factor controls the prey population? 37. What factor controls the predator population? What are the limiting factors for this predator-prey relationship within the ecosystem? (Div. C)
Station E: Sample 41. What is the length & width of the white area in the diagram of sample in centimeters. Convert the dimensions to meters. 42. What is the area of the sample in square kilometers? 43. Assuming each symbol in the sample area represents a type of organism, what is the density of the oo’s in sq. kilometers? 44. Assuming each symbol in the sample area represents a type of organism, what is the density of the <>’s in sq. kilometers? OO <> <> OO OO  <> <> OO OO <> OO DIAGRAM OF THE SAMPLE AREA WITH SYMBOLS Taiga FOOD CHAIN Annual flowers > Rodents >Fox
Station E: Sample 45. Assuming each symbol in the sample area represents a type of organism, what is the density of the ’s in sq. kilometers? 46. Which symbol should represents the producer on the food chain? What is that producer on the food chain? 47. Which symbol represents the herbivore on the food chain? What is the herbivore on the food chain? Does this food chain follow the 10% law? Why or why not? (Div. C) What sampling techniques and community dynamics should have been observed in studying this food chain and where it fits into the balance of the ecosystem? OO <> <> OO OO  <> <> OO OO <> OO DIAGRAM OF THE SAMPLE AREA WITH SYMBOLS Taiga FOOD CHAIN Annual flowers > Rodents > Fox
Station F: Adaptations 1. What are some of the plant adaptations which allow survival in the taiga? 2. What are some of the animal adaptations which allow survival in the taiga? 3. What are some of the plant adaptations which allow survival in grasslands? 4. What are some of the animal adaptations which allow survival in grasslands?
Station G: Ecological Problems 1. How has the global warming affected the taiga biome? 2.Biodiversity of global ecosystems has decreased as the human population has increased? This is particularly true of grasslands or prairies. Studies show that diverse prairie species provide 240% more productivity than single prairie species as “corn field”. What would be the advantages to the health of the prairie biome and benefits to man of natural prairies being restored and prairie farms developing perennial food crops? What would be the advantages to the health of the prairie biome and benefits to man of natural prairies being restored and prairie farms developing perennial food crops?
2009 ECOLOGY – SAMPLE TOURNAMENT `ANSWER KEY STATION A: SURVIVAL NEEDS 1. sun _8-10. Survival Needs 2. D variety = stability __water – fresh water 3. Hawk 5th order __food – raw materials 4.decomposers recycle materials__energy __ oxygen for most organisms 6. yes mouse __living space 7.most water is salt water, appropriate climate ice is fresh water STATION B: ENERGY TRANSFER 11. feeding level _18-20.Energy Uses: % rule – 10% to next level_respiration 13. diagram 3 _growth 14. diagram 1 _maintaining body tissues 15. diagram 2 _body processes 16. only 10 % to next level _body temperature 17. only 1 producer – tree _#1 = 12%, #2= 4.6%, #3= 17% STATION C: FLOW OF MATTER 21. cyclic – not one way _ Nitrogen Cycle (diagram drawn) 22. carbon _ 23. nitrogen,water,phosphorus _ 24. hydrogen, oxygen _ 25. C, H, O, S _ 26. raw materials, vitamins, minerals_ 27. it stops _
Key STATION D: PREDATOR PREY RELATIONS 31. green-smaller #,peaks last_ Limiting Factors 32. red-larger #, peaks first _food supply for prey years _space available ,000 in 1863 _other competing species ,000 in 1887 _enemies of prey 36. # of predators _producers 37. # of prey available _weather conditions STATION E: POPULATION DENSITY cm X 7.3 cm Sampling Techniques =.134 m x.073 cm 10 % rule = 10% at next level sq. meters _Sampling – random, several OO’s per sq. meter _samples, large <>’s per sq. meter _enough level of samples ’s per sq. meter _ annual flowers _Community dynamics –other 47. <> rodents _food webs, abiotic factors
STATION F: ADAPTIONS Adaptations of Taiga Plants - Trees have upside down cone shape so snow slides off the branches Branches are flexible to hold great amounts of snow and not break Trees grow thin and close together to protect them from cold and wind Needles waxy for protection from freezing temperatures and prevent them from drying out Needles are present year round and deep green to absorb the maximum warmth from the sun Thick bark which does not easily burn and protects inner layers from heat and cones protect the seeds Adaptations of Taiga Animals – –migrate south in winter (birds) –go into hibernation during winter –store extra fat layers on their bodies for winter –change diets from season to season –grow extra fur on the bottom of their feet to tread on snow easier (lynx and snowshoe rabbit) –change fur color and coat thickness from season to season –live under snow in winter in snow tunnels (lemmings, mice, shrews, voles)
Adaptations of Grassland Plants - Grasses have three strata – roots, growth at ground level, and taller foliage Half of growth may be below ground Grazed taller foliage will grow back Taller foliage above ground adapted to withstand strong winds, fires, extreme temperature changes Adaptations of Grassland Animals Long distance vision for predator & prey Eyes of grazing animals well above snout Many are built for speed – live in herds or colonies Small creatures can stand on haunches Some hop up and down or hop long distances Camouflage coloration Underground burrows Birds – strong fliers (strong winds), flight song birds to attract mates in air, nest in tall grass
Station G: Ecological problem Impact of Global Warming on Taiga Litter begins to decompose putting carbon into the atmosphere Increases in forest fires Infestation by bark beetles which is killing the trees and forming tinder to fuel the forest fires and adding more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere Advantages to the health of the prairie biome and benefits to man of restoring natural prairies and prairie farms with perennial food crops – Natural tall grass prairies have good biodiversity and develop very rich soil along with being very productive and supporting a large variety of animals. Annuals like wheat and corn must be planted each year so farmers use much fossil fuel for plow and it must be repeated each year. Perennial crops and native grasses reduce soil erosion, allow greater biodiversity, can be cut each year and will grow again quickly without replanting essentially forever. Biomass from perennials can be used to make bio-fuels without annual tilling, fertilizers, and pesticides so it reduces fuel consumption and pollution of the environment.