Presentation on theme: "THE RIVERS AND STREAMS RIVERS Tekirdağ, which is placed in Ergene Riverbasin, has not much river net due to the plant cover, rainfall, and the insufficiency."— Presentation transcript:
THE RIVERS AND STREAMS RIVERS Tekirdağ, which is placed in Ergene Riverbasin, has not much river net due to the plant cover, rainfall, and the insufficiency of the geologic structure.The rate of flow and regime of the rivers are irregular and they are balanced with the rainfall quantity and regime.In summer, the river’s water get lesser and the river gets dry, in winter it gets more even it overflows due to the rainfall and the melting of snow.The streams in the city just carry rain and snow water. Besides there is no source feeding these streams. The rivers in the city reach Saros Bay, The Sea of Marmara and the Blacksea. Ergene River and its branches,flowing in the direction of east-west in the Ergene Riverbasin, is the most important river of the city. Ergene River,born in Güneşkaya near Saray, flows towards the southwest, and gathers with Çorlu stream, near Muratlı, and Vize Stream. Hayrabolu, Çene( Beşiktepe) Streams reach to Ergene from the south. Ergene River, after leaving Tekirdağ, gathers with Meriç River, near İpsala, and reaches Saroz Bay. Ergene River and its branches (Çorlu- Hayrabolu) have always water but it isn’t much and the riverbasin is norrow. The stream’s flow, along the Marmara shore, is not steady. They get dry in summer. The short and weak streams reach to the Sea of Marmara. The main streams of Tekirdağ are Seymen, Kumluca, Şerefli, Değirmendere, Gazioğlu, Doğancı, Işıklar, Olukbaşı and Gölcük Stream. Bahçeköy Stream reaches to Blacksea.
ERGENE RIVER Ergene River, begins from Karatepe, in the east of Istranca Mountains. It flows in the direction of northeast- southwest, and waters the lands of Saray and Çorlu. Ergene River begins from the north of Muratlı, flows in the direction of south- north with Çorlu Stream and enters Kırklareli. Later, it gathers with Meriç River near Saricaali Village,in Edirne.
ÇORLU STREAM It begins from Istranca Mountains,in the east of Çerkezköy.It flows in the direction of northeast-southwest, gathering a lot of streams such as Paşa Stream. Çorlu Stream gathers Marmaracık and Kütüklü Streams after flowing 5 km north from the city center.Again, it runs into Ergene River in the north of Muratlı. The water of the stream gets lesser in summer and it increases in winter due to the rainfall.
HAYRABOLU STREAM Hayrabolu Stream is one of the most important branches of Ergene River.This Stream, flowing in the direction of north- south, enters Hayrabolu and runs into Ergene River in the north.
IŞIKLAR STREAM One of its branches begins from Işıklar Village, and flows in the direction of south and north and the other begins from Nusratlı Village and flows in the direction of north-south.These two branches gather near Naipköy. Işıklar Stream reaches the Sea of Marmara from the north of Kumbağ, after a few kilometres.
OLUKBAŞI STREAM It begins from Araplı Hills and flows in the direction of southwest. Here, it gathers with a small branch. It reaches to the shore creating deep splits. Its speed falls at the sea side and due to the declivity an elbow is formed. After it passes through Şarköy, it reaches to the Sea of Marmara.
GÖLCÜK STREAM This stream, beginning from Işıklar Mountain, passes through Gölcük Village and turns to the west. After it leaves Tekirdağ, it is named as Kavak Stream and reaches to Saroz Bay.
THE FORMS OF THE SHORE Tekirdağ, has a shore in the south that is 133 km along the Sea of Marmara.Besides, it has a 2,5 km shore along the Blacksea. Marmara shores are generally high in spite of the norrow and small shore plains.Marmara Ereğlisi is the only natural harbour of the shores of Tekirdağ and it is a peninsula. In the east, Marmara Ereğlisi Harbour is in the shape of half circle with a 1600 m scale. Its mouth is open to northeastwind but is closed to the other winds. It is an harbour in which the ships take shelter from violent southwestwinds and west winds.
The shore between Marmara Ereğlisi and Kumbağ is generally shallow and there are beaches.The beaches in this shore is generally formed by the mass of sand that includes the eroded sandstones. Barbaros Shores is a good example to the steepy rocks that are eroded by the sea and the rivers.These seaside cliffs are 200 – 300 m in the south of Barbaros Stream’s mouth. Its altitude is 10-12 km. The layers are clear in the seadise cliffs that are formed by sedimentary layers. There are chimney rocks in the strong parts of these layers. The fossils of sea animals show us that here was once a sea terrace.
Tha part between Kumbağ and Gaziköy has a high shore due to the fact that Ganos Mountains is laid steep to the sea. Seaside is formed by pebblestones. The shore again gets more shallow between Gaziköy and Şarköy and leaves its place to the beaches that are covered with sand. The shore, beginning from Kastro( Çamlıkoy) Bay in the Blacksea and reaching to Çilingoz Bay, is high and has steepy rocks. There are not only wide inlets like Kastro,in the shape of pocket, but also small inlets like a notch. This shallow shore, (Kunduzluk-Kastro) Çamlıkoy, rarely seen in the shores of Istrancas that go down to the sea in a steepy way is filled with the alluvions that Bahçeköy stream brings and the sandtunes that waves bring.
SEA OF MARMARA It is called Marmara due to the marbles taken out in its islands in the XIII. century. There are three huge holes on the break line that connects İzmit to Gaziköy in the Sea of Marmara.One of them in the İzmit Bay ( 1207 m ), and the other two are in the Marmara Ereğlisi ( 1355 ) and in the south of Kumbağ ( 1070 m ). The depth of Tekirdağ Bay is not more than 100 m. It is a shallow sea called Self. It is rich in sea plants and animals. The Bay gets deeper more than 1000 m in the south of the line that is from Kumbağ to the west. The fishers call here canal or com. The herds of fish and stream pass through here.
There are rocks in two places in the seaside of Tekirdağ. One of them is in the west of Marmara Ereğlisi and is very near to the surface of the sea. These rocks are tough stones that are saved from corroding. They are dangerous for the vehicles. There is a lighthouse on them due to make their place clear. These rocks are laid near and parallel the seaside until Yeniçiftlik Village.
The second rocky is between Tekirdağ and Barbaros. It is 5-10 m far from and parallel to the seaside.Its depth is 0-1 m and its width is nearly 5 m. There is a sandy sea line between the rocks and seaside in the depth of 0,3 – 0,7 m. The foundation of the rocks is tough and sedimentary stone is stiff. It has been corroded till the bottom of the sea lewel. It has become higher and thicker with the holding of sea animals.That is, the secretion of the living animals and the shells of the dead have come together and have formed a second stone layer until the sea lewel.
The heat of the Sea of Marmara is between 23- 25oC in summer, and 7-9oC in winter. The heat is steady after 250-350 m depth ; 14.2oC. Due to the upper stream that comes from the Blacksea, the salinity in the surface of the sea is lesser than in deeper parts. The thickness of the surface sea is 15 km and its salinity is ‰ 22. the salinity rises in deeper parts and in 150 km it becomes ‰ 38,5. These salty parts of the sea are the parts that come from the Mediterranean Sea by the bottom stream.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SAMPLES TAKEN FROM KINIKLI STREAM PARAMETERUNITS MEASURED / UNITS Chlorure393,3 mg/l Sulphate --- Ammonium Nitrogene2,25 mg/l Phosphorus0,055 mg/l Brochemical Need35 mg/l Codmium156,7 u/l Lead --- Copper52 u/l