# Chapter One: Geography of the United States

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Chapter One: Geography of the United States
History Alive! Chapter One: Geography of the United States In this chapter we will learn: how to read a globe how to use latitude and longitude 14 important geographic terms 15 physical features

Chapter One: Geography of the United States
History Alive! Chapter One: Geography of the United States Before we begin the chapter, We will do our best to identify Where on the globe we can find the United States. Then we will try to identify all 50 states.

1.2 Understanding the Globe
Earth is a huge sphere, like a ball. Most maps show the earth’s surface as flat. A globe is a sphere. Because of this, it provides an accurate map of our planet. Compass: An instrument for finding directions. Cardinal Points: the four main points on a compass – north, east, south, and west. Intermediate Points: points in between cardinal points – northeast, northwest, northwest, southeast, and southwest.

1.2 Understanding the Globe
Equator: An imaginary line circles Earth halfway between the north and south pole and divides the Earth into two half spheres, called hemispheres. Prime Meridian: Another imaginary line that cuts the Earth in half from the North Pole to the South Pole. Western Eastern Equator Prime Meridian

1.2 Understanding the Globe
Over 70% of our planet is covered in water, mainly oceans. Oceans are the largest bodies of water. There four oceans. From largest to smallest, they are Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean

1.2 Understanding the Globe
Oceans surround large landmasses called continents The seven continents on Earth, from largest to smallest, are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

1.3 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
latitude and longitude – types of measurement that can pinpoint any spot on Earth Latitude lines – run west to east (p.14) Always have the same distance in between them. Are measured starting at the equator. Equator – 0 ° latitude North Pole - 90° latitude South Pole - 90° latitude

1.3 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
Longitude lines – lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole. Not always the same distance apart Starting place for measuring them is the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude

1.3 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
To note a place on Earth, first name its latitude, then its longitude. For example, one location on Earth’s surface is at 30 degrees N, 90 degrees W. Can you find this location on the map on page 15?

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic terms, or names, for water: Sea: A body of salt water that is smaller than an ocean. The Dead Sea

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic terms, or names, for water: Gulf: A sea or ocean that cuts into a landmass.

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic terms, or names, for water: Bay: Similar to a gulf, but usually smaller and has a wide opening to the sea.

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic terms, or names, for water: Lake: A body of fresh water that is surrounded by land. Possum Kingdom Lake

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Water also flows in the form of rivers. (page 16) Source: Where the river begins Mouth: Where the river empties into a larger body of water Tributary: A smaller stream that feed into a river.

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Landforms: masses of land, such as continents, islands, and peninsulas. Mountain: usually have steep sides and rise at least 2000 feet above sea level. Mountain range: a row of connected mountains Plains: land that is mostly flat, with few trees.

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic Terms for Landforms: Peninsula: land that is surrounded by water on three sides Cape: an extension of land jutting out into the water that is usually smaller or thinner than a peninsula.

1.4 Understanding Geographic Terms for Water and Landforms
Geographic Terms for Landforms: Island: Land that is completely surrounded by water Valley: The low area between ranges of mountains or hills Delta: formed when soil is deposited at the mouth of a river.

1.5 Physical Features of the United States: Oceans
The U.S is located on the continent of N. America. It’s the world’s third largest country. Bordered by the: Pacific Ocean on the west. Atlantic Ocean on the east Gulf of Mexico on the Southeast

1.5 Physical Features of the United States: Mountains
The Rockies are the largest mountain in North America. They run north to south from Alaska to New Mexico. The Appalacians are the second largest mountain range. The Sierra Nevada mountain range is in the western portion of the U.S.

1.5 Physical Features of the United States: Plains
While observing Earth from space, you would see areas covered by huge plains. Great Plains Gulf Coastal Plains

1.5 Physical Features of the United States: Rivers
One of the most striking features of the US is the system of rivers of lakes These have provided routes for ships and power for industry, which have helped the US become a wealthy nation. The largest river in the US is the Mississippi River.

In this chapter, we learned about:
The geography of the United States How a globe shows the shape of the Earth, as well as physical features How points of the compass show directions. Latitude and longitude lines Useful geographic terms