2Main Idea Earth’s surface includes water and solid landforms. You can identify surface features by their location, shape, and elevation.
3A Watery PlanetEarth is the only planet in our solar system with a large amount of water on its surface.All of Earth’s oceans are connect with most of the water found in the southern part.Lakes and rivers carry or hold fresh water.Only 3% of Earth’s water is fresh and most of it is found in glaciers or ice sheets.
9Landforms cont. HILLS MOUNTAIN VALLEYS Smaller than mountains Rounded crests stand above the land around themMOUNTAIN VALLEYSLong, narrow regions of low land between ranges of mountains or hills.CANYONS – deep valleys with steep sides
11Landforms Cont. PLATEAUS High landforms with flat surfaces. Often along tops of canyonsMESASLike a plateaus, but smaller
12Landforms Cont.PLAINSBroad and flatLower than surroundings
13Landforms Cont. FLOOD PLAIN RIVER VALLEYValley with a river flowing usually in the centerRiver moves along a channel in the valley floorFLOOD PLAINThe floor of a river valley on either side of the riverWater covers a flood plain when a river overflows
16Landforms Mountains – tallest landforms Hills – smaller than mountains Plateaus – high landforms with fairly flat surfacesMountain Valleys – long, narrow regions of low land between rangesPlains – broad, flat and lower than surroundingsRiver valley – river that flows through the center of a valleyFlood Plain – the floor of a river valley on either side of the river
17Coastal Features Coastal Plain Beaches and marshlands Rocky coastlines Sea CavesSea cliffsSea ArchesPocket beachesMainland beachesSand Dunes
18Coastal Plain Canada to Florida Slopes gently from the Appalachian Mountains to the shores of the Atlantic oceanFertile soil
19Beaches & MarshlandsFound at shorelines where the dry land meets the ocean.Flat landformsCan be rocky or sandy
20Pacific Coast No coastal plain Coastline is rocky Can be steep cliffs Mountains may extend to the waters edge
21Sea Caves Waves penetrate weak rock Begins as a small fracture in rock that develops into a cave over time
31Continental MarginStarts at the waters edge and extends to the deep ocean floor3 Parts to the continental marginContinental shelfContinental slopeContinental Rise
32Continental Shelf Forms the edges of the continent Slopes gradually down from sea level to less than 200 m
33Continental Slope Beyond the shelf and is very steep Can fall to depths of 3 km (1.8 mi)Forms the sides of the continents
34Continental Rise At the bottom of the slope Stretches out about 1,000km across the ocean floor
35Ocean Floor FeaturesCanyons – same as on the land, but called submarine canyons underwaterMountains & PlainsSeamounts – huge steep sided mountains rising from the ocean floorSome have flat tops and are known as Guyots (GEE ohs)
36Ocean FloorThe vast area of the deep ocean floor is called the Abyssal Plain.
37What are the three parts of the continental margin? Continental ShelfContinental SlopeContinental Rise
38Mid-Ocean FeaturesOcean Basin – the region beyond the continental marginDeep canyons called trenchesMariana Trench (near Guam) drops 6.6 mi below the ocean floorMid-ocean ridges form mountain chainsThe sides of the ridges slope down to the abyssal plain
39Mapping Surface Features Topographic Map – shows the shape of surface features and their elevations or heights above sea level.Contour Lines – connect points on the map that have the same elevationContour lines show shape and steepness of the land.
41What three properties are used to identify surface features? LocationShapeElevation
42How do contour lines help you visualize a feature of Earth’s solid surface? Contour lines can show the shape and steepness of the land
43Name and describe the three parts of the continental margin. Continental shelf – forms a continent’s edgesContinental slope – steeper and forms its sidesContinental Rise – at the bottom of the slope and stretches across the ocean floor.
44Earth has lots of water. Water covers 70% of Earth’s surface Earth has lots of water. Water covers 70% of Earth’s surface. Even so, water is a critical resource for all living things. Explain why.Salt water is not safe to drink, but is the most abundant type of water. Only 3% of water is fresh and most is locked in glaciers. Fresh water in streams and ponds is very precious.
45Describe how plateaus and plains are similar and how they are different. Plateaus and plains are both flat and wide.However, plateaus rise above their surroundings, while plains sit lower than their surroundings.
46The Mariana Trench is a feature of the floor of the Pacific Ocean The Mariana Trench is a feature of the floor of the Pacific Ocean. What land feature does its shape most resemble? A. river valley B. Canyon C. Mountain Range D. Beach
47The Mariana Trench is a feature of the floor of the Pacific Ocean The Mariana Trench is a feature of the floor of the Pacific Ocean. What land feature does its shape most resemble? B. Canyon
48The rocky outer layer of Earth’s surface is called the Crust
49What are the lines that connect points on a map that have the same elevation called? Contour Lines
50What type of map shows the shape of surface features and their elevations? Topographic Map
51Where is salt water most often found relative to dry land? A. in rivers and streamsB. in underground wellsC. along shorelines and near beachesD. in ice sheets at the North Pole
52Where is salt water most often found relative to dry land? C. along shorelines and near beaches
53A flat landform found at a high elevation is called a ______? A. plateauB. river valleyC. plainD. canyon
54A flat landform found at a high elevation is called a ______? A. plateau
55Underground caves, steep cliffs, and sand dunes often form near __________? A. mountain peaksB. coastlinesC. flood plainsD. Continental slopes
56Underground caves, steep cliffs, and sand dunes often form near __________? B. coastlines