1ChDefine Ch. 55 Terms:AutotrophHeterotrophDetritivoreGross primary production (GPP)Net primary production (NPP)Biogeochemical cycleNitrogen fixationDraw an energy pyramid and label the following trophic levels:Primary producerPrimary consumerSecondary consumerTertiary consumerWhat is an example of an organism at each level of the pyramid in #1?If 5000 J of energy is available in producers, how much of that energy would be available to tertiary consumers?
3You Must Know:How energy flows through the ecosystem (food chains and food webs)The difference between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity.The carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles.
4EcosystemsEcosystem = sum of all the organisms living within its boundaries (biotic community) + abiotic factors with which they interactInvolves two unique processes:Energy flowChemical cycling
6Energy Flow in an Ecosystem Energy cannot be recycled must be constantly supplied to an ecosystem (mostly by SUN)The autotrophs (“self feeders”) are the primary producers, and are usually photosynthetic (plants or algae).They use light energy to synthesize sugars and other organic compounds.Heterotrophs (“other feeders”) – can’t make own food
7Heterotrophs are at trophic levels above the primary producers and depend on their photosynthetic output.
8Herbivores that eat primary producers are called primary consumers. Carnivores that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers.Carnivores that eat secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers.Another important group of heterotrophs is the detritivores, or decomposers.They get energy from detritus, nonliving organic material, and play an important role in material cycling.
10Primary ProductionPrimary production = amt. of light energy that is converted to chemical energyGross primary production (GPP): total primary production in an ecosystemNet primary production (NPP) = gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration (R):NPP = GPP – RNPP = storage of chemical energy available to consumers in an ecosystem
11Net primary production of different ecosystems Open oceanContinental shelf65.012524.45.23605.6EstuaryAlgal beds and reefs0.30.11,5001.22,5000.9Upwelling zonesExtreme desert, rock, sand, ice5000.14.73.00.04Desert and semidesert scrubTropical rain forest3.5900.93.32,20022SavannaCultivated land2.99007.92.76009.1Boreal forest (taiga)Temperate grassland2.48009.61.86005.4Woodland and shrublandTundra1.77003.51.61400.6Tropical seasonal forest1.51,6007.1Temperate deciduous forestTemperate evergreen forest1.31,2004.91.01,3003.8Swamp and marshLake and stream0.42,0002.32500.31020304050605001,0001,5002,0002,500510152025KeyPercentage of Earth’ssurface areaAverage net primaryproduction (g/m2/yr)Percentage of Earth’s netprimary productionMarineTerrestrialFreshwater (on continents)
12Primary production affected by: Light availability (↑ depth, ↓ photosynthesis)Nutrient availability (N, P in marine env.)Key factors controlling primary production:Temperature & moistureA nutrient-rich lake that supports algae growth is eutrophic.
13Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient Production efficiency: only fraction of E stored in foodEnergy used in respiration is lost as heatEnergy flows (not cycle!) within ecosystems
15Ecological pyramids give insight to food chains Loss of energy limits # of top-level carnivoresMost food webs only have 4 or 5 trophic levelsPyramid of NumbersPyramid of Biomass
16The dynamics of energy through ecosystems have important implications for the human population Trophic levelSecondaryconsumersPrimaryconsumersPrimaryproducers
17Matter Cycles in Ecosystem Biogeochemical cycles: nutrient cycles that contain both biotic and abiotic componentsorganic inorganic parts of an ecosystemNutrient Cycles: water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus
23Restoration EcologyBioremediation: use of organisms (prokaryotes, fungi, plants) to detoxify polluted ecosystemsBioaugmentation: introduce desirable species (eg. nitrogen-fixers) to add essential nutrients
24Restoration ecology projects Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with uraniumRestoration ecology projects