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Chapter 2 From the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, Italian merchants dominated the lucrative trade of exotic goods from Persia, Asia Minor, India,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 From the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, Italian merchants dominated the lucrative trade of exotic goods from Persia, Asia Minor, India,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 From the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, Italian merchants dominated the lucrative trade of exotic goods from Persia, Asia Minor, India, and Africa to the Mediterranean. The Black Death, an epidemic of bubonic plague that occurred in the mid- fourteenth century, had major long-term consequences on European society. The insecurity of the fifteenth century prompted a few people to take greater chances, including embarking on dangerous sea voyages through uncharted waters to parts unknown. Monarchs who hoped to enrich their treasuries and solidify their power sponsored these expeditions. Scientific and technological advances, including movable type, navigational aids, and detailed maps, helped make possible this age of exploration.

2 Chapter 2 The most influential advocate of Portuguese exploration was Prince Henry the Navigator, the son of the Portuguese king; he led efforts to extend the Reconquest down the African coast. The Portuguese did not appreciate the immensity of Africa or the length or shape of its shoreline; explorers had to develop new sailing techniques and new ships to complete their voyages. By 1480, Portuguese explorers began a conscious search for a sea route to Asia. Portugal’s African exploration during the fifteenth century broke the monopoly of the old Mediterranean trade with the East – Bartholemew Dias successfully rounds the bottom of Africa (The Cape of Good Hope) 1498 – Vasco de Gama successfully sails to India

3 Chapter 2 Christopher Columbus Born in Italy and moved to Lisbon and married Felipa Moniz, whose family held close ties to Prince Henry the Navigator; through these connections, Columbus gained access to explorers’ maps and papers. Like most Europeans, Columbus believed the earth was spherical, however, Columbus believed the earth was so small that ships would be able to reach the East by sailing west. After failed attempts to convince various monarchs to sponsor an expedition, Columbus finally won financing from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain in Columbus and his men were disappointed that they did not find spectacular riches or the Grand Khan of China; Ferdinand and Isabella, however, were overjoyed with Columbus’s discovery, which made Spain a serious challenger to Portugal in the race for a western route to China. Columbus’s first voyage eventually landed him on a tiny Caribbean island about 300 miles north of the eastern tip of Cuba.

4 Chapter 2 Christopher Columbus Born in Italy and moved to Lisbon and married Felipa Moniz, whose family held close ties to Prince Henry the Navigator; through these connections, Columbus gained access to explorers’ maps and papers. Like most Europeans, Columbus believed the earth was spherical, however, Columbus believed the earth was so small that ships would be able to reach the East by sailing west. After failed attempts to convince various monarchs to sponsor an expedition, Columbus finally won financing from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain in Columbus and his men were disappointed that they did not find spectacular riches or the Grand Khan of China; Ferdinand and Isabella, however, were overjoyed with Columbus’s discovery, which made Spain a serious challenger to Portugal in the race for a western route to China. Columbus’s first voyage eventually landed him on a tiny Caribbean island about 300 miles north of the eastern tip of Cuba. San Salvador.

5 Chapter 2 Christopher Columbus Spain and Portugal’s competing claims to new lands in the West forced the countries to negotiate the Treaty of Tordesillas, which drew an imaginary line 1,100 miles west of the Canary Islands; land discovered west of the line belonged to Spain, while Portugal claimed land to the east.

6 Chapter 2 Christopher Columbus Spain and Portugal’s competing claims to new lands in the West forced the countries to negotiate the Treaty of Tordesillas, which drew an imaginary line 1,100 miles west of the Canary Islands; land discovered west of the line belonged to Spain, while Portugal claimed land to the east.

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8 Christopher Columbus Returned to Spain in 1493 with seven natives known as Tainos. On his second voyage, when Columbus returned to the Caribbean island later in 1493, he discovered the violence with which his sailors had treated the native inhabitants and the brutal retaliation with which that violence was met, an encounter that prefigured much of what was to happen in the years ahead. Columbus made two more journeys, totaling four, to the Caribbean before his death in Columbus’s arrival in the Caribbean ended the age-old separation of the hemispheres and initiated the Columbian exchange, a transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas.

9 Chapter 2 Christopher Columbus Returned to Spain in 1493 with seven natives known as Tainos. On his second voyage, when Columbus returned to the Caribbean island later in 1493, he discovered the violence with which his sailors had treated the native inhabitants and the brutal retaliation with which that violence was met, an encounter that prefigured much of what was to happen in the years ahead. Columbus made two more journeys, totaling four, to the Caribbean before his death in Columbus’s arrival in the Caribbean ended the age-old separation of the hemispheres and initiated the Columbian exchange, a transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas. <- Goods, ideas, animals – horses, cows, goats, cannons, guitars -> Goods, ideas – hammocks, tobacco, pipes

10 Chapter 2 European monarchs moved quickly to stake their claims in the newly discovered lands. By 1500, experts knew that several large chunks of land cluttered the western Atlantic; in 1507, a German cartographer named Martin Waldseemüller published the first map that showed the New World separate from Asia. Two additional discoveries confirmed Waldseemüller’s speculation: Vasco Núñez de Balboa’s discovery of the isthmus of Panama and Ferdinand Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe. Magellan’s trip provided valuable geographic information, confirming that America was a continent separated from Asia by the Pacific. Spaniards brought to the New World Christianity, iron technology, sailing ships, firearms, wheeled vehicles, horses, and deadly microorganisms that decimated native populations. Ancient American people, ideas, goods (such as tobacco), and syphilis made the return trip across the Atlantic.

11 Chapter 2 Hernán Cortés Arrived in the New World in 1504

12 Chapter 2 Hernán Cortés Arrived in the New World in 1504, at nineteen years of age was greatly aided by a fourteen year-old girl named Malinali

13 Chapter 2 Hernán Cortés Arrived in the New World in 1504, at nineteen years of age was greatly aided by a fourteen year-old girl named Malinali (Marina) spoke several native languages and served as an interpreter for Cortés and his men. bore Cortes a son was cast aside when Mrs. Cortes arrives from Spain later marries another of Cortes’ soldiers died at 24 years of age Montezuma, the Mexica emperor, sent representatives from the capital city, Tenochtitlán, bearing gifts fit for gods. Cortés responded by intimating that he was the god Quetzalcoatl, returning to Tenochtitlán as predicted by Mexica religion. Montezuma arranged for large quantities of food to be sent to the Spaniards, hoping to postpone their dreaded arrival in the capital.

14 Chapter 2 Hernán Cortés In August 1519, Cortés marched inland to find Montezuma. Cortés quickly took the Mexica emperor hostage. This precipitated a revolt by the citizens of Tenochtitlán. The natives killed Montezuma and mounted a ferocious attack on the Spaniards. With the help of neighboring enemies of the Mexica, in the spring of 1521, Cortés mounted a complex campaign against the Mexica capital. By the fall of 1521, Cortés was victorious.

15 Chapter 2 Other Explorers Conquistadors quickly fanned out from Tenochtitlán in search of other sources of treasure like Mexico. The most spectacular prize fell to Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the Incan empire in Peru. Pizarro captured the Incan emperor Atahualpa and held him hostage. The Incas were made to pay a ransom of gold and silver that was equal to fifty years of gold and silver production in Europe. Despite the ransom paid, the Spaniards executed Atahualpa.

16 Chapter 2 Other Explorers Juan Ponce de Leon explored Florida in 1521 He was killed in battle with the Calsua Indians. Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón established a small settlement on the Georgia coast. Within a few months most everyone got sick and died, including Ayllón. Pánfilo de Narváez explored the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas in The Native Americans Indians enslaved the survivors of this group. In 1539, Hernando de Soto set out with nine ships to find riches. He landed in Florida and worked his way through much of southeastern North America for three years, never finding rich or majestic civilizations. After many battles and hardships, he got sick and died in 1542.

17 Chapter 2 Other Explorers Tales of fabulous wealth also lured Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to search the Southwest and Great Plains of North America in the 1500’s. In 1540 Coronado and an large group, led by a priest, set out in search of the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola. All they found was the city of Zuni, which they attacked and eventually conquered after difficult battles. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo led an expedition in 1542 that sailed along the coast of California. Storms eventually turned them back to Mexico, empty handed.

18 Chapter 2 Spain was the dominant European power in the Western Hemisphere during the sixteenth century. The Spanish monarchy claimed ownership of most of the land in the Western Hemisphere and gave the conquistadors permission to explore and plunder. The distribution of conquered towns institutionalized the system of encomienda, which empowered conquistadors to rule the Indians and the lands in and around their towns. In theory, the encomendero (the person who “owned” the town) was supposed to encourage the Indians to convert to Christianity, to be responsible for their material well-being, and to guarantee order and justice in the town. The natives were to pay to the encomendero the tribute that they previously had paid to the Mexica empire. In practice, the encomenderos subjected Indians to chronic overwork, mistreatment, and abuse.

19 Chapter 2 Encomienda had two groups of influential critics: Missionaries who found it difficult to convert Indians to Christianity and Royal officials who interpreted encomenderos’ brutal treatment of the Indians as part of the larger general problem of the troublesome autonomy of encomenderos. The Spanish monarchy moved to abolish the encomienda; in 1549, it imposed the repartimiento, a reform that limited the labor an encomendero could command from his Indians. Notably, the repartimiento did not challenge the principle of forced labor in New Spain, which grew directly out of the assumption of the Spaniards’ that they were superior to the Indians. From the viewpoint of Spain, the single most important economic activity in New Spain after 1540 was silver mining. For Spaniards, life in New Spain was relatively easy.

20 Chapter 2 During the sixteenth century, about 225,000 Spaniards settled in the colonies; most of these settlers, who never made up more than 1 or 2 percent of the total population, were men. The tiny number of Spaniards, the masses of Indians, and the frequency of intermarriage created a steep social hierarchy defined by perceptions of social origin and race. The society of New Spain established the precedent for what would become a pronounced pattern in the European colonies of the New World: societies stratified sharply by social origin and race.

21 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards

22 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares)

23 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles

24 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles (American born Spaniards)

25 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles (American born Spaniards) Mestizos

26 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles (American born Spaniards) Mestizos (Spanish and Indian)

27 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles (American born Spaniards) Mestizos (Spanish and Indian) Indians

28 Chapter 2 Intermarriage between the Spaniards, the native Indians and the Africans led to the development of a class structure. Spaniards (peninsulares) Creoles (American born Spaniards) Mestizos (Spanish and Indian) Indians Africans

29 Chapter 2 By 1560, the major centers of Indian civilization had been conquered, the Indians’ leaders overthrown, their religion held in contempt, and their people forced to work for the Spaniards. The deadly toll of Old World diseases on the native inhabitants of New Spain meant that the most valuable resource—Indian labor— dwindled rapidly. To help deal with the need for laborers, the colonists began to import African slaves, although their numbers remained low throughout the sixteenth century.

30 Chapter 2 Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico By the mid-sixteenth century, Spain established a few settlements in Florida in order to reaffirm its claim of ownership of North America and to protect Spanish ships from pirates along the southeastern coast. In 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés established St. Augustine in Florida, the first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States. In 1598, the Spaniards established an outpost in present-day New Mexico. In New Mexico, the Spaniards ruthlessly put down an uprising in the region, but they did not bring peace or stability there.

31 Chapter 2 New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions Both Charles V and his son and successor Philip II fought wars throughout the world during the sixteenth century funded by wealth from New Spain. Constant warfare outstripped the revenues arriving from New Spain, forcing the monarchs to raise taxes in Spain and to borrow from European bankers to pay for their military exploits. Spaniards did not focus on the costs of warfare; rather they looked to New Spain and saw signs of progress and gained great pride and confidence.

32 Chapter 2 Spain’s European rivals learned important lessons from Spain’s New World conquests. France and England tried to follow Spain’s example. In 1524, France sent Giovanni da Verrazano to scout the Atlantic coast of North America from North Carolina to Canada, looking for a Northwest Passage. In 1535 Jacques Cartier’s explorations took him up the St. Lawrence River.

33 Chapter 2 Along with France’s failed attempts, England sent explorers as well. John Cabot was sent to find a Northwest Passage; he met with no more success than did the French explorers. Martin Frobisher hauled cargo back to England certain he had found gold. It was worthless ore, and bankrupt his sponsors. Sir Humphrey Gilbert worked to found colonies in Newfoundland. He later disappeared at sea. Sir Walter Raleigh’s led efforts to found colonies in Roanoke. His colonies did not survive.

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