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Analysis of Theatre Periods Trends and Influential Figures.

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1 Analysis of Theatre Periods Trends and Influential Figures

2 Types of Theatre Styles 1.African 2.Asian 3.Chinese 4.Southeast Asian 5.Japanese 6.Middle- Eastern Western Theatre History 1.Greek 2.Roman 3.Medieval 4.Commedia’ dell Arte 5.Renaissance 6.Restoration 7.Restoration Spectacular 8.Neoclassical 9.Late Modern Theatre

3 GREEK THEATRE The vast majority of Ancient Greek theatrical texts have not survived intact. A small number of works from four Greek playwrights writing during the 5th century B.C. remain fully intact. Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides Aristophanes They are considered the most influential during this time.

4 DRAMAS 1.The dramas rarely had more than three actors (all male), who played the different roles using masks. 2. There was a chorus on the stage most of the time which sang songs and sometimes spoke in unison. 3. As far as we know, most dramas were staged just a single time, at the traditional drama contest. 4. Honored the God, Dionysus

5 ROMAN THEATRE The theatre of ancient Rome was heavily influenced by the Greek tradition. Two most important playwrights were Plautus and Terrance. Roman theatre was less influenced by religion. Also, Roman theatre was more for aesthetic appeal. In Roman theatre, war was a more common thing to appear on stage as opposed to the Greek theatre where wars were more commonly spoken about. This was no doubt a reflection of Roman culture and habits.

6 Roman Audiences The audience was often loud and rude, rarely applauding the actors, but always shouting insults and booing.

7 Roman Actors The actors developed a kind of code that would tell the audience about the characters just by looking at them. 1.A black wig meant the character was a young man. 2.A gray wig meant the character was an old man. 3.A red wig meant the character was a slave. 4.A white robe meant the character was an old man. 5.A purple robe meant the character was a young man. 6.A yellow robe meant the character was a woman. (Character played by a man.) 7.A yellow tassel meant that the character was a God. Plays lasted for two hours, and were usually comedies. Most comedies involved mistaken identity (such as gods disguised as humans).

8 MEDIEVAL THEATRE In Europe in the courts of kings and noblemen scripted re-enactments of the Arthurian legends and other romances, usually associated with jousting or tournaments, were popular in the early 13th century until the middle of the 14th. By the 16th century the practice had developed into staged theatrical events

9 Medieval Plays Three types of plays: 1.Mystery or Cycle Plays- Series of short plays based on the Old and New Testament. 2.Miracle Plays- dealt with the lives of saints. 3.Morality Plays- taught a lesson through allegorical characters representing virtues or faults.

10 COMMEDIA’ DELL ARTE Form of theatre that began in Italy in the mid-16th century characterized by masked "types", the advent of the actress and improvised performances based on sketches or scenarios. The performers played on outside, temporary stages, and relied on various props in place of extensive scenery. La Commedia dell'Arte literally means "Artistic Comedy”. The Commedia was known for its’ stock characters. And you could tell who the character was, by the mask or outfit they wore.

11 Commedia Characters ARLECCHINO Harlequin, a poor character, wearing a colorful patched costume, the patches probably remnants of richer costumes.

12 PANTALONE was a caricature of the Venetian merchant, rich and retired, mean and miserly, with a young wife or an adventurous daughter.

13 Pulcinella Was a dwarfish humpback with a crooked nose, the cruel bachelor who chased pretty girls.

14 RENAISSANCE THEATRE refers to the theatre of England, largely based in London, which occurred between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. It includes the drama of William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and many other famous playwrights.

15 The term "Elizabethan theatre", however, properly covers only the plays written and performed publicly in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603). Companies of players attached to households of leading noblemen and performing seasonally in various locations existed before the reign of Elizabeth I. These became the foundation for the professional players that performed on the Elizabethan stage. Elizabeth I

16 Renaissance Costume Costumes were often bright in color and visually entrancing. Costumes were expensive, however, so usually players wore contemporary clothing regardless of the time period of the play. Occasionally, a lead character would wear a conventionalized version of more historically accurate garb, but secondary characters would nonetheless remain in contemporary clothing.

17 William Shakespeare Most influential figure during the Renaissance period. Born- April the 23rd, 1564 Died- April 23 rd, 1615 Wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets. Known as ‘The Bard of Avon. Married Anne Hathaway Known for such great titles as: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Macbeth, etc..etc..

18 RESTORATION COMEDY Restoration comedy refers to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710. Notorious for its sexual explicitness, a quality encouraged by Charles II (1660–1685) personally and by the rakish aristocratic ethos of his court. The socially diverse audiences included both aristocrats, their servants and hangers-on, and a substantial middle-class segment. These playgoers were attracted to the comedies by up-to-the-minute topical writing, by crowded and bustling plots, by the introduction of the first professional actresses, and by the rise of the first celebrity actors. This period saw the first professional woman playwright, Aphra Behn.


20 Restoration Costumes Clothing in the Restoration expressed the suppressed feelings of freedom during the Puritan period. Masculine and feminine dress began to take on the stiffness and smart elegance. Gentlemen wore wigs that had curls all over it and they shaved their heads. The faces were shaved at first then only a thread of a mustache if any. The hat moved to a high-crown, stiffer and a little narrower-brimmed hat and it was cocked to side. All men tried to wear cravats around the neck rather than the huge collars. Women wore ringlets clustered in the back of the hair with smaller tendrils waved around the face which replaced the earlier dense frizzle. Rich women would weave pearls into their hair and put nosegays in their buns, however, the common people wore simpler hair.


22 Restoration Spectacular The Restoration spectacular, or elaborately staged "machine play", hit the London public stage in the late 17th-century Restoration period, enthralling audiences with action, music, dance, moveable scenery, baroque illusionistic painting, gorgeous costumes, and special effects such as trapdoor tricks, "flying" actors, and fireworks. These shows have always had a bad reputation as a vulgar and commercial threat to the witty, "legitimate" Restoration drama; however, they drew Londoners in unprecedented numbers and left them dazzled and delighted.

23 Machine Play- (Restoration period) Machinery allowing for sunrises and sunsets, flights and descents from heaven, rocks that opened and fountains that played, became increasingly important, achieving its apotheosis in the operas. The term ‘machine play’ is given to a variety of works (tragedy, pastoral, etc.) in which the spectacular element predominates, usually with a strong admixture of music and dance.

24 Neoclassical Theatre Neoclassical Theatre was the dominant form of theatre in the 18th century. Neoclassical theatre as well as the time period is characterized by its grandiosity. The costumes and scenery were intricate and elaborate. The acting is characterized by large gestures and melodrama. The neo-classical age directly follows the time of the Renaissance. Headdresses:

25 Late Modern Theatre twentieth century theatre, often continues the project of realism. However, there has also been a great deal of experimental theatre that rejects the conventions of realism and earlier forms. Examples include: Epic theatre, absurdist theatre, and postmodern theatre. Key figures of the century include: Luigi Pirandello, Bertolt Brecht, Antonin Artaud, Konstantin Stanislavski, Harold Pinter, Eugene O'Neill, Samuel Beckett, Dario Fo and Tony Kushner.

26 ANNOUNCEMENT THEATRE HISTORY TEST FRIDAY, MARCH 4 th Power point will be available on-line!

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